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Although the Eastern Bloc countries except Czechoslovakia had immediately rejected Marshall Plan aid, Eastern Bloc communist parties were blamed for permitting even minor influence by non-communists in their respective countries during the run up to the Marshall Plan.

Italian and French communist leaders were prevented by party rules from pointing out that it was actually Stalin who had directed them not to take opposition stances in Congress, under the control of conservative Republicans, agreed to the program for multiple reasons.

The member conservative isolationist Senate wing of the party, based in the rural Midwest and led by Senator Kenneth S.

Wherry R-Nebraska , was outmaneuvered by the emerging internationalist wing, led by Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg R-Michigan.

The opposition argued that it would be "a wasteful 'operation rat-hole'"; that it made no sense to oppose communism by supporting the socialist governments in Western Europe; and that American goods would reach Russia and increase its war potential.

R-Massachusetts admitted there was no certainty that the plan would succeed, but said it would halt economic chaos, sustain Western civilization, and stop further Soviet expansion.

Senator Robert A. Taft R-Ohio hedged on the issue. He said it was without economic justification; however, it was "absolutely necessary" in "the world battle against communism.

Congress reflected public opinion, which resonated with the ideological argument that communism flourishes in poverty.

Truman's own prestige and power had been greatly enhanced by his stunning victory in the election.

Across America, multiple interest groups, including business, labor, farming, philanthropy, ethnic groups, and religious groups, saw the Marshall Plan as an inexpensive solution to a massive problem, noting it would also help American exports and stimulate the American economy as well.

Major newspapers were highly supportive, including such conservative outlets as Time magazine. Vandenberg made sure of bipartisan support on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

The Solid Democratic South was highly supportive, the upper Midwest was dubious, but heavily outnumbered. The plan was opposed by conservatives in the rural Midwest, who opposed any major government spending program and were highly suspicious of Europeans.

Wallace , the former Vice President. He said the Plan was hostile to the Soviet Union, a subsidy for American exporters, and sure to polarize the world between East and West.

The appointment of the prominent businessman Paul G. Hoffman as director reassured conservative businessmen that the gigantic sums of money would be handled efficiently.

Turning the plan into reality required negotiations among the participating nations. Sixteen nations met in Paris to determine what form the American aid would take, and how it would be divided.

The negotiations were long and complex, with each nation having its own interests. France's major concern was that Germany not be rebuilt to its previous threatening power.

The Benelux countries Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg , despite also suffering under the Nazis, had long been closely linked to the German economy and felt their prosperity depended on its revival.

The Scandinavian nations, especially Sweden , insisted that their long-standing trading relationships with the Eastern Bloc nations not be disrupted and that their neutrality not be infringed.

The United Kingdom insisted on special status as a longstanding belligerent during the war, concerned that if it were treated equally with the devastated continental powers it would receive virtually no aid.

The Americans were pushing the importance of free trade and European unity to form a bulwark against communism. The Truman administration, represented by William L.

Clayton , promised the Europeans that they would be free to structure the plan themselves, but the administration also reminded the Europeans that implementation depended on the plan's passage through Congress.

A majority of Congress members were committed to free trade and European integration, and were hesitant to spend too much of the money on Germany.

Agreement was eventually reached and the Europeans sent a reconstruction plan to Washington, which was formulated and agreed upon by the Committee of European Economic Co-operation in Attempting to contain spreading Soviet influence in the Eastern Bloc, Truman asked Congress to restore a peacetime military draft and to swiftly pass the Economic Cooperation Act, the name given to the Marshall Plan.

Of the Soviet Union Truman said, "The situation in the world today is not primarily the result of the natural difficulties which follow a great war.

It is chiefly due to the fact that one nation has not only refused to cooperate in the establishment of a just and honorable peace but—even worse—has actively sought to prevent it.

Members of the Republican-controlled 80th Congress — were skeptical. Others thought he had not been forceful enough to contain the USSR.

ECA was headed by economic cooperation administrator Paul G. The first substantial aid went to Greece and Turkey in January , which were seen as the front line of the battle against communist expansion, and were already receiving aid under the Truman Doctrine.

Initially, Britain had supported the anti-communist factions in those countries, but due to its dire economic condition it decided to pull out and in February requested the US to continue its efforts.

The ECA's official mission statement was to give a boost to the European economy: to promote European production, to bolster European currency, and to facilitate international trade, especially with the United States, whose economic interest required Europe to become wealthy enough to import US goods.

Another unofficial goal of ECA and of the Marshall Plan was the containment of growing Soviet influence in Europe, evident especially in the growing strength of communist parties in Czechoslovakia, France, and Italy.

The Marshall Plan money was transferred to the governments of the European nations. The funds were jointly administered by the local governments and the ECA.

Each European capital had an ECA envoy, generally a prominent American businessman, who would advise on the process.

The cooperative allocation of funds was encouraged, and panels of government, business, and labor leaders were convened to examine the economy and see where aid was needed.

The Marshall Plan aid was mostly used for the purchase of goods from the United States. The European nations had all but exhausted their foreign-exchange reserves during the war, and the Marshall Plan aid represented almost their sole means of importing goods from abroad.

At the start of the plan, these imports were mainly much-needed staples such as food and fuel, but later the purchases turned towards reconstruction needs as was originally intended.

In the latter years, under pressure from the United States Congress and with the outbreak of the Korean War , an increasing amount of the aid was spent on rebuilding the militaries of Western Europe.

Also established were counterpart funds , which used Marshall Plan aid to establish funds in the local currency.

This was prominent in Germany, where these government-administered funds played a crucial role in lending money to private enterprises which would spend the money rebuilding.

These funds played a central role in the reindustrialization of Germany. The companies were obligated to repay the loans to the government, and the money would then be lent out to another group of businesses.

This process has continued to this day in the guise of the state-owned KfW bank, Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau, meaning Reconstruction Credit Institute.

In it was worth DM 23 billion. Through the revolving loan system, the Fund had by the end of made low-interest loans to German citizens amounting to around DM billion.

France made the most extensive use of counterpart funds, using them to reduce the budget deficit. In France, and most other countries, the counterpart fund money was absorbed into general government revenues, and not recycled as in Germany.

However, in January , the American government suspended this aid in response to the Dutch efforts to restore colonial rule in Indonesia during the Indonesian National Revolution , and it implicitly threatened to suspend Marshall aid to the Netherlands if the Dutch government continued to oppose the independence of Indonesia.

At the time the United States was a significant oil producing nation — one of the goals of the Marshall Plan was for Europe to use oil in place of coal, but the Europeans wanted to buy crude oil and use the Marshall Plan funds to build refineries instead.

However, when independent American oil companies complained, the ECA denied funds for European refinery construction. A high priority was increasing industrial productivity in Europe, which proved one of the more successful aspects of the Marshall Plan.

The United States Congress passed a law on June 7, that allowed the BLS to "make continuing studies of labor productivity" [82] and appropriated funds for the creation of a Productivity and Technological Development Division.

The BLS could then use its expertise in the field of productive efficiency to implement a productivity drive in each Western European country receiving Marshall Plan aid.

Counterpart funds were used to finance large-scale tours of American industry. France, for example, sent missions with businessmen and experts to tour American factories, farms, stores, and offices.

They were especially impressed with the prosperity of American workers, and how they could purchase an inexpensive new automobile for nine months work, compared to 30 months in France.

By implementing technological literature surveys and organized plant visits, American economists, statisticians, and engineers were able to educate European manufacturers in statistical measurement.

The goal of the statistical and technical assistance from the Americans was to increase productive efficiency of European manufacturers in all industries.

To conduct this analysis, the BLS performed two types of productivity calculations. First, they used existing data to calculate how much a worker produces per hour of work—the average output rate.

Second, they compared the existing output rates in a particular country to output rates in other nations.

By performing these calculations across all industries, the BLS was able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each country's manufacturing and industrial production.

From that, the BLS could recommend technologies especially statistical that each individual nation could implement.

Often, these technologies came from the United States; by the time the Technical Assistance Program began, the United States used statistical technologies "more than a generation ahead of what [the Europeans] were using".

The American government sent hundreds of technical advisers to Europe to observe workers in the field. This on-site analysis made the Factory Performance Reports especially helpful to the manufacturers.

In addition, the Technical Assistance Program funded 24, European engineers, leaders, and industrialists to visit America and tour America's factories, mines, and manufacturing plants.

The analyses in the Factory Performance Reports and the "hands-on" experience had by the European productivity teams effectively identified productivity deficiencies in European industries; from there, it became clearer how to make European production more effective.

Before the Technical Assistance Program even went into effect, United States Secretary of Labor Maurice Tobin expressed his confidence in American productivity and technology to both American and European economic leaders.

He urged that the United States play a large role in improving European productive efficiency by providing four recommendations for the program's administrators:.

The effects of the Technical Assistance Program were not limited to improvements in productive efficiency. The Europeans could watch local, state, and federal governments work together with citizens in a pluralist society.

They observed a democratic society with open universities and civic societies in addition to more advanced factories and manufacturing plants.

Another important aspect of the Technical Assistance Program was its low cost. Even while the Marshall Plan was being implemented, the dismantling of ostensibly German industry continued; and in Konrad Adenauer , an opponent to Hitler's regime and the head of the Christian Democratic Union, [87] wrote to the Allies requesting the end of industrial dismantling, citing the inherent contradiction between encouraging industrial growth and removing factories, and also the unpopularity of the policy.

Thanks to the Plan, during , it went up 35 percent of the industrial and agricultural. In January the Allied Control Council set the foundation of the future German economy by putting a cap on German steel production.

Steel plants thus made redundant were to be dismantled. Germany was to be reduced to the standard of life it had known at the height of the Great Depression The first " German level of industry " plan was subsequently followed by a number of new ones, the last signed in By , after the virtual completion of the by then much watered-down "level of industry" plans, equipment had been removed from manufacturing plants in western Germany and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6,, tons.

This meant that some of the economic restrictions on production capacity and on actual production that were imposed by the International Authority for the Ruhr were lifted, and that its role was taken over by the ECSC.

The Marshall Plan aid was divided among the participant states on a roughly per capita basis. The exception was Iceland, which had been neutral during the war , but received far more on a per capita basis than the second highest recipient.

Germany, which up until the Debt agreement had to work on the assumption that all the Marshall Plan aid was to be repaid, spent its funds very carefully.

Payment for Marshall Plan goods, "counterpart funds", were administered by the Reconstruction Credit Institute , which used the funds for loans inside Germany.

By it had accumulated a value of 23 billion Deutsche Mark. Through the Office of Policy Coordination money was directed towards support for labor unions, newspapers, student groups, artists and intellectuals, who were countering the anti-American counterparts subsidized by the Communists.

The largest sum went to the Congress for Cultural Freedom. There were no agents working among the Soviets or their satellite states.

There were conservatives among the participants, but non-Communist or former Communist left-wingers were more numerous.

The Marshall Plan was originally scheduled to end in Any effort to extend it was halted by the growing cost of the Korean War and rearmament.

American Republicans hostile to the plan had also gained seats in the Congressional elections , and conservative opposition to the plan was revived.

Thus the plan ended in , though various other forms of American aid to Europe continued afterwards. The years to saw the fastest period of growth in European history.

Agricultural production substantially surpassed pre-war levels. Additionally, the long-term effect of economic integration raised European income levels substantially, by nearly 20 percent by the mids.

Most reject the idea that it alone miraculously revived Europe, as evidence shows that a general recovery was already underway. Most believe that the Marshall Plan sped this recovery, but did not initiate it.

Many argue that the structural adjustments that it forced were of great importance. Economic historians J. Bradford DeLong and Barry Eichengreen call it "history's most successful structural adjustment program.

The political effects of the Marshall Plan may have been just as important as the economic ones. Marshall Plan aid allowed the nations of Western Europe to relax austerity measures and rationing, reducing discontent and bringing political stability.

The communist influence on Western Europe was greatly reduced, and throughout the region, communist parties faded in popularity in the years after the Marshall Plan.

At the same time, the nonparticipation of the states of the Eastern Bloc was one of the first clear signs that the continent was now divided.

The Marshall Plan also played an important role in European integration. Both the Americans and many of the European leaders felt that European integration was necessary to secure the peace and prosperity of Europe, and thus used Marshall Plan guidelines to foster integration.

In some ways, this effort failed, as the OEEC never grew to be more than an agent of economic cooperation.

Rather, it was the separate European Coal and Steel Community , which did not include Britain, that would eventually grow into the European Union.

However, the OEEC served as both a testing and training ground for the structures that would later be used by the European Economic Community.

The Marshall Plan, linked into the Bretton Woods system , also mandated free trade throughout the region.

While some historians today feel some of the praise for the Marshall Plan is exaggerated, it is still viewed favorably and many thus feel that a similar project would help other areas of the world.

After the fall of communism, several proposed a "Marshall Plan for Eastern Europe" that would help revive that region. It is usually used when calling for federal spending to correct a perceived failure of the private sector.

But its real importance American post-war aid was less than the money flowing in the other direction.

The Marshall Plan money was in the form of grants from the U. Treasury that did not have to be repaid.

The American supplier was paid in dollars, which were credited against the appropriate European Recovery Program funds. The European recipient, however, was not given the goods as a gift but had to pay for them usually on credit in local currency.

These payments were kept by the European government involved in a special counterpart fund. This counterpart money, in turn, could be used by the government for further investment projects.

Five percent of the counterpart money was paid to the US to cover the administrative costs of the ERP. In the case of Germany, there also were 16 billion marks of debts from the s which had defaulted in the s, but which Germany decided to repay to restore its reputation.

This money was owed to government and private banks in the US, France, and Britain. Another 16 billion marks represented postwar loans by the US.

The only major Western European nation excluded was Francisco Franco's Spain, which was highly unpopular in Washington.

With the escalation of the Cold War, the United States reconsidered its position, and in embraced Spain as an ally, encouraged by Franco's aggressive anti-communist policies.

Over the next decade, a considerable amount of American aid would go to Spain, but less than its neighbors had received under the Marshall Plan.

The Soviet Union had been as badly affected as any part of the world by the war. The Soviets imposed large reparations payments on the Axis allies that were in its sphere of influence.

These reparation payments meant the Soviet Union itself received about the same as 16 European countries received in total from Marshall Plan aid.

In accordance with the agreements with the USSR, shipment of dismantled German industrial installations from the west began on March 31, Under the terms of the agreement, the Soviet Union would in return ship raw materials such as food and timber to the western zones.

In view of the Soviet failure to do so, the western zones halted the shipments east, ostensibly on a temporary basis, although they were never resumed.

It was later shown that the main reason for halting shipments east was not the behavior of the USSR but rather the recalcitrant behavior of France.

The members of Comecon looked to the Soviet Union for oil; in turn, they provided machinery, equipment, agricultural goods, industrial goods, and consumer goods to the Soviet Union.

Economic recovery in the East was much slower than in the West, resulting in the formation of the shortage economies and a gap in wealth between East and West.

Canada, like the United States, was damaged little by the war and in was one of the world's richest economies. It operated its own aid program.

Canada made over a billion dollars in sales in the first two years of operation. It was not large enough to have significantly accelerated recovery by financing investment, aiding the reconstruction of damaged infrastructure, or easing commodity bottlenecks.

The conditions attached to Marshall Plan aid pushed European political economy in a direction that left its post World War II "mixed economies" with more "market" and less "controls" in the mix.

Prior to passing and enacting the Marshall Plan, President Truman and George Marshall started a domestic overhaul of public opinion from coast to coast.

The purpose of this campaign was to sway public opinion in their direction and to inform the common person of what the Marshall Plan was and what the Plan would ultimately do.

They spent months attempting to convince Americans that their cause was just and that they should embrace the higher taxes that would come in the foreseeable future.

A copious amount of propaganda ended up being highly effective in swaying public opinion towards supporting the Marshall Plan.

During the nationwide campaign for support, "more than a million pieces of pro-Marshall Plan publications-booklets, leaflets, reprints, and fact sheets", were disseminated.

Americans swapped their isolationist ideals for a much more global internationalist ideology after World War II. In a National Opinion Research Center NORC poll taken in April , a cross-section of Americans were asked, "If our government keeps on sending lendlease materials, which we may not get paid for, to friendly countries for about three years after the war, do you think this will mean more jobs or fewer jobs for most Americans, or won't it make any difference?

Before proposing anything to Congress in , the Truman administration made an elaborate effort to organize public opinion in favor of the Marshall Plan spending, reaching out to numerous national organizations representing business, labor, farmers, women, and other interest groups.

Political scientist Ralph Levering points out that:. Mounting large public relations campaigns and supporting private groups such as the Citizens Committee for the Marshall Plan , the administration carefully built public and bipartisan Congressional support before bringing these measures to a vote.

Public opinion polls in consistently showed strong support for the Marshall plan among Americans. Laissez-faire criticism of the Marshall Plan came from a number of economists.

Wilhelm Röpke , who influenced German Minister for Economy Ludwig Erhard in his economic recovery program , believed recovery would be found in eliminating central planning and restoring a market economy in Europe, especially in those countries which had adopted more fascist and corporatist economic policies.

Röpke criticized the Marshall Plan for forestalling the transition to the free market by subsidizing the current, failing systems.

Erhard put Röpke's theory into practice and would later credit Röpke's influence for West Germany's preeminent success.

Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises criticized the Marshall Plan in , believing that "the American subsidies make it possible for [Europe's] governments to conceal partially the disastrous effects of the various socialist measures they have adopted".

However, its role in the rapid recovery has been debated. Most reject the idea that it alone miraculously revived Europe since the evidence shows that a general recovery was already underway.

Criticism of the Marshall Plan became prominent among historians of the revisionist school, such as Walter LaFeber , during the s and s.

They argued that the plan was American economic imperialism and that it was an attempt to gain control over Western Europe just as the Soviets controlled Eastern Europe economically through the Comecon.

In a review of West Germany's economy from to , German analyst Werner Abelshauser concluded that "foreign aid was not crucial in starting the recovery or in keeping it going".

Belgium, the country that relied earliest and most heavily on free-market economic policies after its liberation in , experienced swift recovery and avoided the severe housing and food shortages seen in the rest of continental Europe.

Greenspan writes in his memoir The Age of Turbulence that Erhard's economic policies were the most important aspect of postwar Western European recovery, even outweighing the contributions of the Marshall Plan.

He states that it was Erhard's reductions in economic regulations that permitted Germany's miraculous recovery, and that these policies also contributed to the recoveries of many other European countries.

Its recovery is attributed to traditional economic stimuli, such as increases in investment, fueled by a high savings rate and low taxes.

Japan saw a large infusion of US investment during the Korean War. Noam Chomsky said the Marshall Plan "set the stage for large amounts of private U.

The film highlights the stereotypes held by both the Spanish and the Americans regarding the culture of the other, as well as displays social criticism of s Francoist Spain.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the computer program, see Marshall Plan software. It is not to be confused with European Economic Recovery Plan.

Introduced in the Senate as S. Truman on April 3, The Marshall Plan Speech. Republics of the USSR. Allied states. Related organizations.

Dissent and opposition. Cold War events. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Europe portal United States portal. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved Manchester University Press.

Open Society Archives. Archived from the original on 15 December Price, Harry Bayard The Marshall Plan and its Meaning. Cornell UP.

Bradford; Eichengreen, Barry The controls for view selection affect the type of view that you are using.

For instance, you may choose to be in the cockpit, looking forward at the instrument panel, or you may select an external view, perhaps where you look at your aircraft from the point of view of the nearest air traffic control tower.

View selection controls are described in Table 5. After selecting some view, you can modify the view using translation moving left, right, fore, or aft , rotation spinning about your point of focus , or zoom changing the angle of view.

The default keyboard shortcuts for these effects are listed in Table 5. In this mode, you can move your view around the cockpit in one of a few ways:.

This mode leaves the mouse free to click on things in the cockpit without affecting where you are looking. In 3-D cockpit mode, you can use the keyboard shortcuts or the View menu itself to change where you are looking.

These are described in Table 5. Quick Look allows you to set up a view just the way you like it, and then save it as a hot key or command.

Then, in the future, whenever you press that key on the keyboard or button on your joystick, as the case may be , you can go right back to that view again.

Note that the Quick Looks are aircraft-specific preferences. This means that your Quick Look views in the Cessna do not interfere with your views in the King Air, and so on.

This can take some time to set up and if you do it often, it can get tedious. The solution, then, is to set up a Quick Look.

Note that the Num Lock must be on in order to do this. Now, no matter how your view changes, when you press the shortcut for Quick Look 1 by default, Num Pad 1 , your head position, orientation and zoom goes right back to your memorized view of the throttle quadrant.

When pressing the Ctrl key along with any of those numbers, you will store your current view to be recalled later by that number key.

Quick Looks are not just for 3-D cockpit mode, either. X-Plane has the capability to fly an aircraft using artificial intelligence AI.

The AI system can handle all aspects of flying your aircraft, including taxiing around the airport, take off and landing. Click Aircraft, then select A.

Flies Your Aircraft. Furthermore, this is an excellent way to practice tuning radios. In addition, you can have the AI control your view by opening the Aircraft menu and selecting A.

Controls Your Views. If you need help with a certain aspect of the simulator, open the menu and check for a question mark icon in the right corner.

Click on the icon to open a webpage with additional information and instructions about the screen you are currently viewing.

In each case, you can save the flight and replay it yourself, or you can upload it to the Internet for others to see. It also includes information on the environmental conditions of the flight, including cloud conditions, temperature, and time of day.

Furthermore, any other aircraft you have loaded will also be noted. This is especially useful for quickly loading and practicing a specific type of approach, or for recreating a specific combat situation.

To load a situation in order to fly it again, open the File menu and click Load Flight. You can narrow down the list of all the saved files by clicking on the Situations button.

If you do not see your file in any of the lists, you can also click the Open Saved Flight Not Listed button to open a file browser window to navigate to the file, wherever you saved it.

Click on the. This file is only viewable in X-Plane, but because it is so complete, you can change your view as much as you like while replaying.

To load a replay, open the File menu as before, but select Load Flight. You can narrow down the list of all the saved files by clicking on the Replay button.

In addition to file types readable only by X-Plane, you can also create more universally readable movies. The downside to these movie files is that they record exactly what you see when you record them, and they do not record sound.

After recording the movie, you can edit it in a program like iMovie installed on new Macs by default or Windows Live Movie Maker.

In choosing a frame rate, know that videos produced at 15 frames per second will look jittery. Film and television use 24 and 30 frames per second, respectively.

Your movie file can be played back on virtually any computer. If the appropriate software is not installed on the computer you want to play the file on, you can get a free cross-platform multimedia player from the VideoLAN Organization.

The final method of saving or sharing your flight is to take a simple screenshot. In addition to being able to save replays for later playback as described in the section Saving and Sharing Your Flight above , you can visualize your flight up to your present location in a few different ways.

The path taken by an aircraft up to its current location can always be seen as a trail behind the aircraft when you toggle the 3-D flight path on.

Cycling it again will give a semi-transparent black bar extending from the flight path to the ground seen in Figure 5.

Cycling the path once more will turn off the flight path lines. The flight path will also be reset whenever you load an aircraft or a location.

You can replay your flight, from the last time you loaded an aircraft or a location up to your current location, by toggling the replay mode on.

In the top of the window, you will see shuttle controls to listed left to right :. Additionally, you can click the shuttle slider and drag it to quickly jump around in the playback.

The final method of visualizing a flight is to load information from a flight data recorder FDR. This is useful primarily in accident investigation and re-creation.

You can load. Then you will be greeted with the standard replay shuttle buttons with which you can replay the flight.

X-Plane models flight by breaking an aircraft down into a number of little pieces and finding the forces acting on each piece.

With some wind and turbulence turned on in the Weather screen, you can even see the pseudo-random velocity vector flow field around the airplane.

The velocity vectors seen are the actual vectors interacting with the aircraft, and the force vectors the green lines coming off the plane are the actual forces acting on the plane—nothing is just for show here.

The green bars extending from the control surfaces of the aircraft indicate how much lift each section of the surface is generating; longer bars represent greater force.

The red bars, likewise, represent drag, and the yellow bars represent lift from vertical control surfaces.

The vector popping out of each point around the airplane shows if the air is being pushed up, down, fore, or aft or, for that matter, side to side by the rudder or vertical stabilizer compared to the speed and direction of the center of gravity of the airplane.

Additionally, these on-screen visual representations provide no numerical data. The text file will include angles of attack, forces, velocities and additional data for that instant of your flight.

X-Plane is the most comprehensive and powerful flight simulator available. As such, there are a great number of features available that go beyond simply taking off, flying around, and landing.

These include tools like the logbook and checklists, and features like equipment failures and damage modeling. Each time an aircraft is flown in X-Plane, the program logs the flight time in a digital logbook.

Inside this text file are the following details of previous flights:. Although AI aircraft will always follow the guidance of the air traffic control, they will also work around your aircraft if you are not interacting with the ATC.

Note : You will only be able to hear the air traffic control chatter if ATC audio output is enabled; to confirm this is the case, open the Settings screen, then click Sound.

All interactions with the air traffic control occur via the on-screen ATC window. To access this feature, simply press Enter Return on the keyboard.

You can also program a button on a joystick to access this screen or click the headset icon in the menu. In order to make a request or hear from the air traffic controllers, you must have your COM 1 radio tuned to the proper frequency for the request.

Filing a flight plan is independent of any controller, so that option is always available. However, once the flight plan is filed, you must tune to the Clearance Delivery, Ground, or Tower frequencies if available, in that order as in the real world to get clearance for takeoff.

After you get clearance, you tune to the Ground if available or Tower frequencies for your taxi clearance.

To see these frequencies, as well as other important airport information, click on the airport in the Map window, then on Details in the box that opens.

You can always tune your radios by hand, but you can also auto-tune your COM1 radio by clicking on any line in the ATC list.

Figure 6. As in the real world, any ATC interaction begins with filing a flight plan. Click that button to open the Flight Plan window shown in Figure 6.

You may specify an airline and a flight number if desired. The starting airport will already be filled in, but you must enter your destination airport code, as well as your planned cruising enroute altitude.

It will help you through each step in the proper order and give you hints if you get off track. Tune your COM1 radio to Remember you can do this by hand, by clicking on the line in the list of controllers, or, if auto-tune is enabled, it will happen automatically.

You now have a flight plan in the system. If you wish to change your mind, you can return to the flight plan dialog in the same way and update it.

As in the real world, you must wait for them to finish talking before you can talk. You must also respond within a reasonable amount of time or they will repeat their instructions.

Click Request Taxi to call ground to receive a taxi clearance. Acknowledge the clearance as described above and then look around you.

Where the arrows stop, you must also stop and wait for further instructions. Taxi to where the arrows are taking you. When you reach the side of the runway, ground will instruct you to contact the tower.

Read back the command and then tune to the tower frequency of Check in with this new controller.

If there are aircraft using the runway, you will have to wait until they are done. This may take some time! At that time,. Tower will call you and give you your takeoff clearance.

Respond and then depart. Unless otherwise instructed, fly the runway heading up to your cleared altitude of 3, feet. At some point, you will be handed off to the center controller on Check in as you did before.

Continue on your heading and altitude and eventually Center will begin vectoring you to an approach at your destination of KBFI.

X-Plane has the ability to display a simple checklist in the simulator. To load a check list, open the File menu and click Open Checklist.

Open it and you will see the checklist displayed line-by-line in the checklist window. You can use the forward and back buttons to go to the next and previous lines, respectively.

If you prefer to see the text file all at once rather than line-by-line as in the checklist view , you can select Open Text File from the File menu and then load a file in the manner discussed above.

However, by opening the Settings screen and clicking on General, you can enable the option to Remove flying surfaces when over speed or over G limits.

An airplane can typically stay in the air at very high weights, but it will have a hard time getting off the ground initially. Additionally, moving the center of gravity forward left on the slider makes the plane behave more like a dart, and moving the center of gravity aft right on the slider makes the plane more unstable, and potentially unflyable.

Flying a plane with the center of gravity far aft is like shooting an arrow backwards—it wants to flip around with the heavy end in the front and the fins in the back.

X-Plane can simulate countless aircraft systems failures. You can access this feature while in the Flight Configuration screen by clicking on an aircraft icon, then the Customize button, then the Failures button.

If the Set global mean time between failures box is checked, the simulator will use the value to the right to determine how often, on average, each piece of equipment will fail.

Since the airplane has a few hundred pieces of hardware, that means a failure might occur every 5 to 20 hours or so.

Checking this box essentially allows the possibility of random and unexpected failures. The World section of the Failures window controls things outside of the airplane, such as bird strikes and airport equipment failures.

The other categories and subcategories in this window let the user set the frequency of specific failures for hundreds of different aircraft systems.

Many of the options allow you to specify a time, speed, or other condition at which they will fail. A smoke trail, as might be used by an aerobatic airplane in an airshow, can be enabled behind your aircraft.

You can assign a different key by following the instructions in Configuring Keyboard Shortcuts.

This is seen most often for users running at standard speed, but failing to maintain 20 frames per second.

The result is that the physics are integrating in slow-motion in order to avoid destabilizing from the low framerate. Thus, if you need real-time simulation, you must run the simulator at 20 fps or faster.

In commercial aircraft, a nosewheel tiller is used to more accurately align the nosewheel to the taxi lines, and to get the aircraft safely docked at jetways.

You can assign an axis on your joystick to control this tiller by opening the Settings screen, going to Joystick and, in one of the drop-down menus in the Axis tab, selecting nosewheel tiller.

The additional system requirements for VR are:. Note that no Intel GPUs are supported. In addition, you may need to enable foreign apps in the VR system settings.

Click on SteamVR under the Tools section in the left sidebar, then the install button. As long as your headset is attached and your GPU meets minimum requirements , there will be a checkbox to enable VR hardware.

Note that if you have the VR Mouse cursor enabled, you may need to completely remove the headset to restore use of the 2d mouse cursor on your computer monitor.

From here you can access the main menu, all settings, and any pop up warning screens. The default fleet minus the R—71 is VR-ready but 3rd party aircraft may be less usable in VR unless you use the 3D mouse to interact with the cockpit.

In general, the manipulators in and around the aircraft function the way they would it real life. Grab the throttle of the Cessna by pressing and holding the trigger near it.

It will light up green, then push or pull the knob to adjust the setting. Lightly and partially squeeze the VR controller trigger to see a green laser appear.

This feature essentially takes traditional manipulation and lets you perform the motion at any distance or angle that is convenient for you.

By default, the pilot yoke behaves in a realistic manner—tilt your wrist left or right for roll, and push in or pull out to control pitch.

Ergonomic mode behaves slightly differently than real life—it works by tilting your wrist up or down to control pitch, and rolling your wrist left right for roll.

Moving forward and back does nothing. This allows you to keep your hand in a relaxed and comfortable position while you fly and also allows you to be more precise with the controls.

You must press the trigger a second time to release it. If you do have hardware rudder pedals, it is up to you to control them. Move around the aircraft or the world by using teleport: push down on the thumb stick Oculus or touchpad Vive to see a blue arc with a circle at the end, which is your landing spot.

Some parts of the aircraft, such as seats, have a hotspot which will light up and snap you to that location. When you press the button, it zooms your view in so you can see distant things a bit clearer.

When you release the button, your view resets. Press the three line button the menu button of the virtual controller to access the menu options.

This option is the only supported way to recenter your view inside the cockpit. Within the quick menu is a three-line menu option that opens the main menu so you can access the usual options: load or save a flight, change your view, modify the flight, and so on.

Use the thumb stick Oculus or touchpad Vive to move around menus and submenus, then use the trigger on the controller to select an option.

Pop out windows such as ground services, ATC, the map, and more are available from the controller menu by selecting the icon that looks like two window boxes on the left side.

You can also bind a joystick button or key to this option. This cursor will function basically the same as a non-VR mouse.

VR is more demanding on your computer than simply using the desktop simulator. If you are not consistently running at least 45 fps in the base desktop sim, you will need to turn rendering settings down.

If that does not help, a full restart of the computer often seems to fix many problems with launching VR. That click is being stolen by SteamVR for internal functions.

People often call customer support asking about some of the more advanced things that pilots do in the real world—how to navigate, use an autopilot, or fly on instruments.

This chapter will cover these areas in a fair amount of detail, but we recommend that, if you are really serious about mastering these facets of aviation, you head down to a local general aviation airport and hire a CFI Certified Flight Instructor for an hour or two.

If you have a laptop, by all means bring it along and have the instructor detail these things in practice. There is much more to review here than this manual could ever cover, so a quick search for information on the Internet will also be of assistance.

You have no reference to the ground and are flying over St. Louis in the middle of an overcast layer. As you might guess, this looks pretty much identical to the view you would have flying over Moscow on instruments.

Louis and not over Moscow is to be able to navigate. Figure 7. The VFR Sectional map is designed for use under visual flight rules.

It only shows the information of interest to pilots flying above 18, feet and making use of vector airways that are much longer, based on larger VORs with longer ranges.

The maps provide a lot of information on the area where your aircraft is located, including topography and selectable NAVAIDs.

The thick blue and gray lines running across the maps are airways, which are basically like highways in the sky. These vector airways are given names for example, V and are used by air traffic controls to assign clearances.

Small airports are indicated by notched circles, while larger airports with are shown as full runway layouts. Airports shown in blue on the VFR sectional map have control towers in the real world.

To move your view around a map, you can click the map and drag. You can also zoom in and out by using your mouse scroll wheel.

Additionally, you can use the viewing control buttons located in the top left corner of the map window to alter your view. Use the plus or minus icons to zoom in or out respectively.

Tap the target icon to center the view on the aircraft. This will also lock the map view onto the aircraft so that as you fly, the map will scroll underneath it and the aircraft will stay in the center.

Drag anywhere on the map to break the lock. In this second case, if the plane is flying south, the top of the map will be south.

If the plane banks to the east, the map will automatically rotate and east will now be on top. Click on anything in the map to get more information on it.

For example, if you click on your aircraft, the Inspector box will pop up with its name, heading, altitude, speed, and climb angle, most of which you can also edit from within the window.

Clicking on an airport will allow you to pick a new runway or final approach, or view details such as weather conditions and communications frequencies.

In the right side of the map window you can change what is displayed on the map. You can check the boxes to toggle the flight path, a compass rose around your aircraft, or to disable downwind ILS beacons.

Non-directional beacons were invented in the late s and consisted of a ground-based transmitter that broadcast a homing signal.

A receiver in the aircraft could be tuned to one of about discrete frequencies in order to tune to a particular transmitter.

Although nearly abandoned in the United States, NDBs are still used in many countries around the world. It is for this reason that they are modeled in X-Plane.

Very High Frequency Omni-Range navigation or VOR was introduced in the mid—s and represented a large improvement in navigation accuracy.

Instead of an NDB that a pilot could home in on, the VOR sends a series of discrete little carrier tones on a main frequency. Each of these carriers is oriented along a different radial from the station, one of just like a compass rose.

You can imagine it like the wheel of a bike: the VOR transmitter is the hub of the wheel with spokes representing each radial.

Thus, when you are flying along and tune in the main VOR frequency, you then fine tune your navigation display to tell you which of the radials you are flying and also whether the transmitter station is in front of or behind you.

This error could only be due to two factors—either the pilot was not flying along the radial or the wind blew the airplane slightly off of course.

Clicking on one in the map will display its information and allow you to tune your Navigational radios with a click of a button.

Click on the map icon to open a window that will allow you to tune the frequency into your NAV 1 radio automatically. Keep in mind that you can also tune the navigation radio built into the GPS, but you may have to hit the flip-flop switch to bring the frequency you just tuned into the active window on top.

The vertical line in the center is the reference indicator, and moves to the left and right to indicate where the aircraft is in relation to a chosen radial.

Select a radial by turning the OBS knob which rotates the compass rose around the instrument; the chosen radial is indicated above the top yellow arrow.

Now you can determine where you are in relation to the VOR by finding what radial you are on, or you can enter a radial you want to be on in order to plot your desired course.

Keep in mind that all radials are measured as the heading when moving away from a VOR beacon. Determining what radial you are on is simple.

The number above the yellow arrow at the top of the CDI is your current radial position. To intercept a different radial, look at your map again to determine where you are in relation to the station.

If you are inbound to the station, pick the reciprocal on the opposite side of the station from your aircraft.

If you are outbound, use the radial your aircraft is currently on. Turn the OBS dial again to enter the desired radial at the top of the circle.

Most likely the vertical line will be off to one side or the other. This indicates how far you are from your desired radial.

To the left and right of the center target the little white circle the instrument displays five dots or short lines on each side.

Each of these dots indicates that you are two degrees off of course. Thus, a full scale left deflection of the vertical reference indicates that the aircraft is 10 degrees right of the desired radial.

Just remember that as long as you are flying towards the VOR, the line on the CDI indicates the location of the desired course. If the reference line is on your left that means that your target radial is on your left, and you should turn that direction.

Your aim is to get the vertical line in the center and to stay there, indicating you are flying the desired radial. You have no way of telling if you are 15 miles from the station or 45 miles away.

An ILS is therefore made up of two transmitters, a localizer and a glide slope—one for each component of the navigation.

A localizer LOC transmitter provides lateral guidance to the centerline of a runway. It works by sending out two signals on the same channel, one of which modulates at 90 Hz and the other of which modulates at Hz.

One of these signals is sent out slightly to the left of the runway, while the other sent out slightly to the right of it.

If an aircraft is picking up more of the tone modulated at Hz, it is off to the left. If it is picking up more of the tone modulated at 90 Hz, it is off to the right.

The course deviation indicator or CDI in the instrument panel then indicates this so that the pilot can correct it. When both tones are being received in equal amounts, the craft is lined up with the physical centerline of the runway.

The glide slope beacon functions similarly to the localizer, sending out two tones that have the same frequency, but different modulations.

The difference is that the glide slope tells the plane that it is either too high or too low for its distance from the runway.

The ILS will allow a pilot to fly on instruments only to a point that is a half mile from the end of the runway at feet depending on the category of the ILS above the ground.

If the runway cannot be clearly seen at that point the pilot is prevented from executing a normal landing. The Global Positioning System was first created for the US military and introduced to the public in the early s.

This system consists of a series of satellites orbiting the Earth which continuously send out signals telling their orbital location and the time the signal was sent.

A GPS receiver can tune in to the signals they send out and note the time it took for the signal to travel from the satellite to the receiver for several different satellites at once.

Since the speed at which the signals travel is known, it is a simple matter of arithmetic to determine how far from each satellite the receiver is.

Triangulation or, rather, quadrangulation is than used to determine exactly where the receiver is with respect to the surface of the Earth.

In an aircraft, this information is compared with the onboard database to determine how far it is to the next airport, navigational aid NAVAID , waypoint, or whatever.

The concept is simple, but the math is not. GPS systems have turned the world of aviation on its head, allowing everyday pilots to navigate around with levels of accuracy that were unimaginable 20 years ago.

While the intricate workings of the various GPS radios are complex, the basic principals are pretty consistent. On the Garmin , entry is performed using the control knob on the bottom right of the unit.

The databases in these radios are not limited simply to the identifiers of the airports you may wish to fly to.

To begin a discussion on instrument flight, we must first discuss why it is so difficult. Rather, the difficulty lies in believing what the instruments are saying.

Your body has developed a system of balance and equilibrium that has evolved in humans over millions of years, and forcing your brain to ignore these signals and to believe what the instruments are telling you is very difficult.

To put it bluntly, in a real aircraft, your life depends on ignoring your feelings and senses and flying based solely on the information in front of you.

The gyroscope was invented many decades before aircraft, but its tremendous implications for flying were not realized until the mid- to late—s.

The basic principal that they work on is that if you take a relatively heavy object and rotate it at a high rotational velocity it will hold its position in space.

You can then mount this stable, rigid gyroscope in an instrument that is fixed to your aircraft and measure the relative motion of the instrument case and thus the airplane about the fixed gyro.

There are three primary gyroscopic instruments in the panel. They are:. The AI indicates what attitude the aircraft is flying at—how far the nose is above or below the horizon, as well as how far the wings are banked and in which direction.

There are six primary instruments that have become standard in any instrument panel. The airspeed indicator shows the speed at which the aircraft is traveling through the air.

In its simplest form, it is nothing more than a spring which opposes the force of the air blowing in the front of a tube attached under the wing or to the nose of the aircraft.

The attitude indicator informs the pilot of his or her position in space relative to the horizon. This is accomplished by fixing the case of the instrument to the aircraft and measuring the displacement of the case with reference to a fixed gyroscope inside.

The altimeter looks somewhat like the face of a clock and serves to display altitude. This is measured by the expansion or contraction of a fixed amount of air acting on a set of springs.

As the airplane climbs or descends, the relative air pressure outside the aircraft changes and the altimeter reports the difference between the outside air pressure and a reference, contained in a set of airtight bellows.

The turn coordinator measures the rate of turn for the aircraft. The instrument is only accurate when the turn is coordinated-that is, when the airplane is not skidding or slipping through the turn.

In a car, this results in a turn radius that is larger than that commanded by the driver. It results from an aircraft that is banked too steeply for the rate of turn selected.

The directional gyro is a simple instrument that points north and thus allows the pilot to tell which way she or he is flying.

Typically, non-pressurized airplanes will climb comfortably at about fpm if the plane is capable and descend at about fpm.

Pressurized airplanes can climb and descend much more rapidly and still maintain the cabin rate of change at about these levels, since the cabin altitude is not related to the ambient altitude unless the pressurization system fails.

Similar steps can be used for any airport in any application. To fly an instrument approach, we first need to know the local navigational aid NAVAID frequencies in order to tune our radios.

Now, Sea-Tac is a busy airport, so you may have to zoom in to find the ILS for the runway you are approaching. When you find it, though, you can click on it to highlight in yellow the ILS path and to open a small window with details.

From this window you can tune your radios with a click of a button and place your aircraft up in the air at the perfect spot for the approach.

Recall from the discussion of ILSs previously in this chapter that an ILS combines the functionality of a localizer providing lateral guidance to the centerline of the runway with a glide slope transmitter providing vertical guidance down to the runway.

Having found the relevant ILS frequency, enter it into the Nav 1 radio remember you can tune your radios automatically using the buttons in the map window.

Click the GPS screen in the cockpit to bring up the close-up of the instrument if needed. However, in ILS navigation both the horizontal and vertical lines move to provide guidance.

The localizer is represented by a vertical line. When it is in the center of the CDI, it means that the aircraft is lined up almost perfectly with the physical centerline of the runway.

The glide slope indicator portion of the CDI is represented by a horizontal line. When this is in the center of the instrument, the aircraft is perfectly in line with the glide slope and is descending at an ideal rate.

Below the attitude indicator is the directional gyro. You can use this to line up your approach with a known heading e. Additionally, the glide slope indicator will begin to move.

This line functions like the vertical one: If its needles are above the center of the instrument then the craft needs to fly up to get back on track, and if they are below the center of the instrument, it needs to fly down to intercept the glide slope.

However, the glide slope is in most cases a downward slope at three degrees, so you should never need to climb to intercept it, just adjust the rate of descent.

The horizontal line is above us when we start the approach, since we started 10 nm out from the runway. Continue flying the same altitude, and the line will slowly come down to the center, and from there you should control the descent to keep it there.

The goal is to keep the vertical line centered to stay on the localizer, and the horizontal line centered to stay on the glide slope.

Follow the guidance of the localizer and glide slope until the craft reaches an altitude of about feet above the runway.

At this point, if everything was done correctly, the runway will be right in front of the aircraft. In the Cessna, this is about 65 knots.

This instrument allows pilots to fly a GPS approach as well as direct-to navigation. This can be moved around the cockpit as needed.

Clicking the GPS display in the cockpit a second time will close the window. The controls on left side adjust the VOR, localizer and communication frequencies, while the ones on the right control GPS functions.

When the bottom frequency is highlighted in a paler blue, you can use the inner and outer rotating knobs to change the frequency.

Read messages, create or edit a flight plan, and activate procedures by pressing the buttons at the bottom. In general, the large dial moves between lines or options, while the smaller one is used to edit a line.

The LCD will change to a data entry screen. From the main navigation screen, click the large knob twice to get to the group of menus for nearest airport, intersection, NDB, VOR, and airspace.

After creating a flight plan, you can save it to load later by pressing the Menu button while in the active flight plan screen. You can also reverse the order of waypoints or delete the entire plan from this menu.

To load a saved plan, use the small knob to go to the second screen of the Flight Plan category. The autopilot works by implementing a number of different functions.

These include, among other things, the ability to automatically hold a certain pitch, altitude, heading, or speed, or to fly to a commanded altitude.

Each of these is a mode that the aircraft can be put into simply by clicking that button on the panel with the mouse.

Not all aircraft have autopilot, and some of the simpler craft, such as the Cessna , may have fewer modes than those listed below. The actual use of these autopilot functions will be discussed in the following sections.

The WLV button is the wing leveler. This will simply hold the wings level while the pilot figures out what to do next.

The HDG button controls the heading hold function. This will simply follow the heading bug on the HSI or direction gyro.

The LOC button controls the localizer flight function. The HOLD button controls the altitude hold function. This will hold the current or pre-selected altitude by pitching the nose up or down.

The SPD button controls the airspeed function. This will hold the pre-selected airspeed by pitching the nose up or down, leaving the throttle alone.

The FLCH button controls the flight-level change function. This will hold the pre-selected airspeed by pitching the nose up or down, adding or taking away power automatically.

This is commonly used to change altitude in airliners, as it allows the pilot add or take away power while the airplane pitches the nose to hold the most efficient airspeed.

If the pilot adds power, the plane climbs. If they take it away, the plane descends. SPD and FLCH are almost identical functions in X-Plane—they both pitch the nose up or down to maintain a desired aircraft speed, so adding or taking away power results in climbs and descents, respectively.

The difference is that if you have auto-throttle on the airplane, FLCH will automatically add or take away power for you to start the climb or descent, whereas SPD will not.

The PTCH button controls the pitch sync function. This is commonly used to just hold the nose somewhere until the pilot decides what to do next.

This will fly the glide slope portion of an ILS. The VNAV button controls the vertical navigation function.

This will automatically load altitudes from the FMS Flight Management System into the autopilot for you in order to follow route altitudes.

The BC button controls the back course function. Every ILS on the planet has a little-known second localizer that goes in the opposite direction as the inbound localizer.

This is used for the missed approach, allowing you to continue flying along the extended centerline of the runway, even after passing over and beyond the runway.

To save money, some airports will not bother to install a new ILS at the airport to land on the same runway going the other direction, but instead let you fly this second localizer backwards to come into the runway from the opposite direction of the regular ILS!

This is called a back course ILS. Using the same ILS in both directions has its advantages e. Hit the BC autopilot button if you are doing this.

It causes the autopilot to realize that the needle deflection is backwards and still fly the approach. Note also that the glide slope is not available on the back course, so you have to use the localizer part of the procedure only.

Before using the autopilot, it needs to be turned on. If the flight director is OFF, nothing will happen when you try to use the autopilot.

If it is ON, then the autopilot will not physically move the airplane controls, but will rather move little target wings on your artificial horizon that you can try to mimic as you fly.

If you do this, you will be following the guidance that the autopilot is giving you, even though you are the one actually flying.

The flight director, then, is following whatever autopilot mode you selected, and you, in turn, are following the flight director to actually fly the plane.

If the flight director is set to AUTO, then the autopilot servos will actually fly the airplane according to the autopilot mode you have selected.

In other words, turning the flight director ON turns on the brains of the autopilot, displaying the commands from the modes above on the horizon as little magenta wings you can follow.

Turning the Flight Director switch to AUTO turns on the servos of the autopilot, so the plane follows the little magenta wings for you without you touching the stick.

Therefore, if you have a flight director switch, make sure it is in the right mode for the type of autopilot guidance you want—-none, flight director only, or servo-driven controls.

With the flight director set to the right mode, you can engage the autopilot functions by simply pressing the desired button in the instrument panel.

To turn off an autopilot function, simply hit its button once again. When all other autopilot functions are turned off, the autopilot will revert to the default functions.

With the autopilot turned on either to the flight director-only mode or the servo-driven control mode , you are ready to use the autopilot functions.

We will discuss when it would be appropriate to use some of the most common functions. This is useful when switching between autopilot functions.

For the sake of smooth transitions, many of these values will be set by default to your current speed or altitude at the moment the autopilot function buttons are hit.

If you want the autopilot to guide the aircraft to a new altitude, you have to ask yourself: Do you want the airplane to hold a constant vertical speed to reach that new altitude, or a constant airspeed to reach it?

Since airplanes are most efficient at some constant indicated airspeed, climbing by holding a constant airspeed is usually most efficient.

Imagine you are flying along at 5, feet and you hit ALT, causing the autopilot to store your current altitude of 5, feet.

Now, though, you want to climb to 9, feet. You would first dial 9, into the altitude window. The plane will not go there yet; before it will, you must choose how you want to get to this new altitude.

To get to your new altitude via a given airspeed as airliners do , after dialing in 9, feet in the altitude window, you would hit the FLCH or SPD buttons.

This will cause the plane to pitch the nose up or down to maintain your current indicated airspeed. Now, simply add a dose of power if needed to cause the nose of the plane to rise which the autopilot will command in order to keep the speed from increasing.

When you reach 9, feet, the autopilot will leave speed-hold mode and go into altitude-hold mode, holding 9, feet until further notice.

Both the airspeed and vertical speed modes will be maintained until you reach the new specified altitude, at which point the autopilot will abandon that mode and go into altitude-hold mode.

The same thing will happen with the glide slope control. If the glide slope is armed that is, lit up after you pushed the button , then the autopilot will abandon your vertical mode when the glide slope engages.

This will also happen with the localizer control. If the localizer is armed, the autopilot will abandon your heading mode when the localizer engages.

The key thing to realize is that the vertical speed, flight level change, and heading modes are all modes that command the plane the moment they are engaged.

Altitude, glide slope, and localizer, on the other hand, are all armed in standby until one of the modes above intercepts the altitude, glide slope, localizer, or GPS course.

An exception to the above rule is altitude. If you hit the altitude button, the autopilot will be set to the current altitude.

This is not the way a smart pilot flies, though. A smart pilot with a good airplane, a good autopilot, and good planning will dial in the assigned altitude long before he or she gets there including the initial altitude before take off and then use vertical speed, flight level change, or even pitch sync to reach that altitude.

While on the ground, short of the runway, you are told to maintain, say, 3, feet. You are given a runway heading and cleared for takeoff.

In the initial climb, around maybe feet, you set the flight director to AUTO. You hit the HDG button, and the plane follows or turns to the heading.

Once there, click the HDG button again and the plane will maintain its course. The autopilot automatically notes the current vertical velocity or airspeed, and the plane flies at that airspeed or vertical velocity until it gets to 3, feet, where it levels off.

These are the options that are most difficult to figure out, partially because the right frequencies and HSI mode must be selected to use them, and partially because they will do nothing until they capture the approach path they are looking for.

For that to happen, some other mode any of the ones discussed above must be engaged to do that. The autopilot only knows which of these three to use when you tell it which one.

This means that if you have a full-scale ILS needle deflection simply because you have not yet gotten to the localizer the localizer mode will simply go into armed yellow mode, and will not do anything yet to the plane.

Your current heading or wing level mode if engaged will remain in force or you can fly by hand until the localizer needle starts to move in towards the center.

Once that happens, the LOC will suddenly go from armed mode yellow to active mode. This causes the autopilot to start flying the plane for you, disengaging any previous modes.

The reason that the localizer function disengages previous modes is that as soon as the localizer needle comes in, you want the autopilot to forget about heading and start flying the localizer down to the runway.

Alternatively, you may simply fly the plane by hand to the localizer with no autopilot mode on at all and have the autopilot take over once the ILS needle starts to come in, indicating you are entering the localizer.

Interestingly, this is much the same as the altitude modes. Just as the localizer is armed by hitting the LOC button, and you can do anything until the localizer arms take over lateral control, the altitude is also armed always and automatically and you can fly any vertical speed, airspeed, or pitch manually or on autopilot until the altitude is reached, at which point the autopilot will go into altitude hold mode.

It does this because you typically have the airplane on altitude hold until you intercept the glide slope, at which point the plane should stop holding altitude and start descending down to the runway.

In other words, the glide slope function will automatically go from armed to active once the plane hits the center of the glide slope.

As soon as you intercept the localizer, the LOC button will go from yellow to green, abandoning the heading mode to instead fly the localizer.

The autopilot will track you right down to the runway, and even flare at the end, cutting power if auto-throttle mode is engaged.

If you come in above the glide slope, cross the localizer at a wide angle, or intercept the localizer too close to the airport, the autopilot will not be able to maneuver the airplane for landing again, just as in a real plane.

Do all these things and the plane will follow any FMS plan, assuming, of course, that the plane you are flying has all this equipment which of course some do not.

The steps will be similar in any aircraft. It is found in the General Aviation aircraft folder. The second waypoint should activate automatically.

Press the LOC autopilot button to arm FMS course capture so as you approach the course the autopilot will lock on and turn toward the waypoint.

You must first intercept the FMS course to make the autopilot lock on. If for some reason the FMS fails to do this, you can force it to step forward or skip waypoints by using the NEXT button to display the desired waypoint and the select button a D with an arrow through it to activate it.

An Instructor Operator Station is a sort of console used by a flight instructor or someone standing in for an instructor.

This console can be used to fail multitudes of aircraft systems, alter the weather and time of day, or relocate the aircraft.

The IOS can be run on a second monitor on the same computer as the simulator. If you are using one computer with two or more monitors, you can enable the IOS on the second monitor by going to the Graphics tab in the Settings screen.

Note that the IOS can only be used full screen, not windowed, when set up in this manner. When you close the Settings window you will have the IOS screen options on your second monitor and the flight on the primary monitor.

Click the two squares in the top right corner to pop it out as a separate window that you can then drag to a different monitor.

Once you have the IOS configured how you would like it, you will be able to fly on one monitor while controlling many of the aspects of your flight on the other.

In addition, there are buttons to load or save a flight, reset the flight path and quit X-Plane. Note also that you can move to the helipad nearest you at any time by opening the Customize Location screen, clicking the Special Starts button and clicking on the Helipad Start line.

All manner of different helicopter layouts can be found in reality, but we will discuss the standard configuration here—-a single overhead rotor with a tail rotor in the back.

The amount of lift generated by the main rotor is only varied by adjusting the blade pitch of the main rotor blades.

This means that the rotor is giving about zero lift! Because the blades have zero pitch, they have very little drag, so it is very easy to move them through the air.

In other words, the power required to turn the rotor at its operational RPM is pretty minimal. Equally apparent is the fact that they are harder to drag through the air now, since they are doing a lot more work.

To compensate, at that point any modern helicopter will automatically increase the throttle as much it needs to in order to maintain the desired RPM in the rotor.

While on the ground, the collective handle is flat on the floor. This means the rotor pitch is flat, with minimum drag and zero lift.

In X-Plane, a flat collective corresponds to the throttle being full forward , or farthest from the user. On the ground, with the collective pitch flat, there is little drag on the blades, so the power required to hold this speed is pretty low.

When you decide to take off, you do so by raising the collective up—that is, by pulling it up from the floor of the helicopter.

In X-Plane, this is done by easing the throttle on a joystick back down toward you. This increases the blade pitch on the main rotor and therefore increases its lift, but it also increases the drag on the rotor a lot.

The rotor RPM begins to fall below RPM, but the auto-throttle senses this and loads in however much engine power it has to in order to keep the rotor moving at exactly RPM.

More collective is pulled in until the blades are creating enough lift to raise the craft from the ground. The auto-throttle continues adding power to keep the rotor turning at RPM no matter how much the collective is raised or lowered.

This inevitability can be delayed for a few moments using the anti-torque pedals. The main rotor is putting a lot of torque on the craft, causing it to spin in the opposite direction because of course for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction—the rotor is twisted one way, the helicopter twists the other way.

This is where the anti-torque pedals come in. The rotational torque on the helicopter is countered with thrust from the tail rotor.

Just push the left or right rudder pedal such as the CH Products Pro Pedals to get more or less thrust from the tail rotor.

Incidentally, the tail rotor is geared to the main rotor so that they always turn in unison. The tail rotor, like the main rotor, cannot change its speed to adjust its thrust.

Once the craft is in the air and the collective pitch of the main rotor is being adjusted in X-Plane, using the joystick throttle , try holding the craft 10 feet in the air and adjusting the tail-rotor pitch with the anti-torque pedals i.

From here, the joystick should be wiggled left, right, fore, and aft to steer the helicopter around. Here is how this works: If the stick is moved to the right , then the rotor blade will increase its pitch when it is in the front of the craft, and decrease its pitch when it is behind the craft.

In other words, the rotor blade will change its pitch through a full cycle every time it runs around the helicopter once.

This means that it changes its pitch from one extreme to the other times per minute 7 times per second if the rotor is turning at RPM.

Pretty impressive, especially considering that the craft manages to stay together under those conditions! So, we have the collective, cyclic, and anti-torque controls.

When the stick is moved to the right, the rotor increases pitch when it is in the part of its travel that is in front of the helicopter. Now that the rotor is tilted to the right, it will of course drag the craft off to the right as long as it is producing lift.

It can conduct no torque left, right, fore, and aft to the body of the helicopter.

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The final method of saving or sharing your flight is to take a simple screenshot. In addition to being able to save replays for later playback as described in the section Saving and Sharing Your Flight above , you can visualize your flight up to your present location in a few different ways.

The path taken by an aircraft up to its current location can always be seen as a trail behind the aircraft when you toggle the 3-D flight path on.

Cycling it again will give a semi-transparent black bar extending from the flight path to the ground seen in Figure 5. Cycling the path once more will turn off the flight path lines.

The flight path will also be reset whenever you load an aircraft or a location. You can replay your flight, from the last time you loaded an aircraft or a location up to your current location, by toggling the replay mode on.

In the top of the window, you will see shuttle controls to listed left to right :. Additionally, you can click the shuttle slider and drag it to quickly jump around in the playback.

The final method of visualizing a flight is to load information from a flight data recorder FDR.

This is useful primarily in accident investigation and re-creation. You can load. Then you will be greeted with the standard replay shuttle buttons with which you can replay the flight.

X-Plane models flight by breaking an aircraft down into a number of little pieces and finding the forces acting on each piece.

With some wind and turbulence turned on in the Weather screen, you can even see the pseudo-random velocity vector flow field around the airplane.

The velocity vectors seen are the actual vectors interacting with the aircraft, and the force vectors the green lines coming off the plane are the actual forces acting on the plane—nothing is just for show here.

The green bars extending from the control surfaces of the aircraft indicate how much lift each section of the surface is generating; longer bars represent greater force.

The red bars, likewise, represent drag, and the yellow bars represent lift from vertical control surfaces.

The vector popping out of each point around the airplane shows if the air is being pushed up, down, fore, or aft or, for that matter, side to side by the rudder or vertical stabilizer compared to the speed and direction of the center of gravity of the airplane.

Additionally, these on-screen visual representations provide no numerical data. The text file will include angles of attack, forces, velocities and additional data for that instant of your flight.

X-Plane is the most comprehensive and powerful flight simulator available. As such, there are a great number of features available that go beyond simply taking off, flying around, and landing.

These include tools like the logbook and checklists, and features like equipment failures and damage modeling. Each time an aircraft is flown in X-Plane, the program logs the flight time in a digital logbook.

Inside this text file are the following details of previous flights:. Although AI aircraft will always follow the guidance of the air traffic control, they will also work around your aircraft if you are not interacting with the ATC.

Note : You will only be able to hear the air traffic control chatter if ATC audio output is enabled; to confirm this is the case, open the Settings screen, then click Sound.

All interactions with the air traffic control occur via the on-screen ATC window. To access this feature, simply press Enter Return on the keyboard.

You can also program a button on a joystick to access this screen or click the headset icon in the menu. In order to make a request or hear from the air traffic controllers, you must have your COM 1 radio tuned to the proper frequency for the request.

Filing a flight plan is independent of any controller, so that option is always available. However, once the flight plan is filed, you must tune to the Clearance Delivery, Ground, or Tower frequencies if available, in that order as in the real world to get clearance for takeoff.

After you get clearance, you tune to the Ground if available or Tower frequencies for your taxi clearance. To see these frequencies, as well as other important airport information, click on the airport in the Map window, then on Details in the box that opens.

You can always tune your radios by hand, but you can also auto-tune your COM1 radio by clicking on any line in the ATC list.

Figure 6. As in the real world, any ATC interaction begins with filing a flight plan. Click that button to open the Flight Plan window shown in Figure 6.

You may specify an airline and a flight number if desired. The starting airport will already be filled in, but you must enter your destination airport code, as well as your planned cruising enroute altitude.

It will help you through each step in the proper order and give you hints if you get off track. Tune your COM1 radio to Remember you can do this by hand, by clicking on the line in the list of controllers, or, if auto-tune is enabled, it will happen automatically.

You now have a flight plan in the system. If you wish to change your mind, you can return to the flight plan dialog in the same way and update it.

As in the real world, you must wait for them to finish talking before you can talk. You must also respond within a reasonable amount of time or they will repeat their instructions.

Click Request Taxi to call ground to receive a taxi clearance. Acknowledge the clearance as described above and then look around you.

Where the arrows stop, you must also stop and wait for further instructions. Taxi to where the arrows are taking you.

When you reach the side of the runway, ground will instruct you to contact the tower. Read back the command and then tune to the tower frequency of Check in with this new controller.

If there are aircraft using the runway, you will have to wait until they are done. This may take some time! At that time,.

Tower will call you and give you your takeoff clearance. Respond and then depart. Unless otherwise instructed, fly the runway heading up to your cleared altitude of 3, feet.

At some point, you will be handed off to the center controller on Check in as you did before. Continue on your heading and altitude and eventually Center will begin vectoring you to an approach at your destination of KBFI.

X-Plane has the ability to display a simple checklist in the simulator. To load a check list, open the File menu and click Open Checklist.

Open it and you will see the checklist displayed line-by-line in the checklist window. You can use the forward and back buttons to go to the next and previous lines, respectively.

If you prefer to see the text file all at once rather than line-by-line as in the checklist view , you can select Open Text File from the File menu and then load a file in the manner discussed above.

However, by opening the Settings screen and clicking on General, you can enable the option to Remove flying surfaces when over speed or over G limits.

An airplane can typically stay in the air at very high weights, but it will have a hard time getting off the ground initially.

Additionally, moving the center of gravity forward left on the slider makes the plane behave more like a dart, and moving the center of gravity aft right on the slider makes the plane more unstable, and potentially unflyable.

Flying a plane with the center of gravity far aft is like shooting an arrow backwards—it wants to flip around with the heavy end in the front and the fins in the back.

X-Plane can simulate countless aircraft systems failures. You can access this feature while in the Flight Configuration screen by clicking on an aircraft icon, then the Customize button, then the Failures button.

If the Set global mean time between failures box is checked, the simulator will use the value to the right to determine how often, on average, each piece of equipment will fail.

Since the airplane has a few hundred pieces of hardware, that means a failure might occur every 5 to 20 hours or so. Checking this box essentially allows the possibility of random and unexpected failures.

The World section of the Failures window controls things outside of the airplane, such as bird strikes and airport equipment failures.

The other categories and subcategories in this window let the user set the frequency of specific failures for hundreds of different aircraft systems.

Many of the options allow you to specify a time, speed, or other condition at which they will fail. A smoke trail, as might be used by an aerobatic airplane in an airshow, can be enabled behind your aircraft.

You can assign a different key by following the instructions in Configuring Keyboard Shortcuts. This is seen most often for users running at standard speed, but failing to maintain 20 frames per second.

The result is that the physics are integrating in slow-motion in order to avoid destabilizing from the low framerate.

Thus, if you need real-time simulation, you must run the simulator at 20 fps or faster. In commercial aircraft, a nosewheel tiller is used to more accurately align the nosewheel to the taxi lines, and to get the aircraft safely docked at jetways.

You can assign an axis on your joystick to control this tiller by opening the Settings screen, going to Joystick and, in one of the drop-down menus in the Axis tab, selecting nosewheel tiller.

The additional system requirements for VR are:. Note that no Intel GPUs are supported. In addition, you may need to enable foreign apps in the VR system settings.

Click on SteamVR under the Tools section in the left sidebar, then the install button. As long as your headset is attached and your GPU meets minimum requirements , there will be a checkbox to enable VR hardware.

Note that if you have the VR Mouse cursor enabled, you may need to completely remove the headset to restore use of the 2d mouse cursor on your computer monitor.

From here you can access the main menu, all settings, and any pop up warning screens. The default fleet minus the R—71 is VR-ready but 3rd party aircraft may be less usable in VR unless you use the 3D mouse to interact with the cockpit.

In general, the manipulators in and around the aircraft function the way they would it real life. Grab the throttle of the Cessna by pressing and holding the trigger near it.

It will light up green, then push or pull the knob to adjust the setting. Lightly and partially squeeze the VR controller trigger to see a green laser appear.

This feature essentially takes traditional manipulation and lets you perform the motion at any distance or angle that is convenient for you.

By default, the pilot yoke behaves in a realistic manner—tilt your wrist left or right for roll, and push in or pull out to control pitch.

Ergonomic mode behaves slightly differently than real life—it works by tilting your wrist up or down to control pitch, and rolling your wrist left right for roll.

Moving forward and back does nothing. This allows you to keep your hand in a relaxed and comfortable position while you fly and also allows you to be more precise with the controls.

You must press the trigger a second time to release it. If you do have hardware rudder pedals, it is up to you to control them. Move around the aircraft or the world by using teleport: push down on the thumb stick Oculus or touchpad Vive to see a blue arc with a circle at the end, which is your landing spot.

Some parts of the aircraft, such as seats, have a hotspot which will light up and snap you to that location.

When you press the button, it zooms your view in so you can see distant things a bit clearer. When you release the button, your view resets.

Press the three line button the menu button of the virtual controller to access the menu options.

This option is the only supported way to recenter your view inside the cockpit. Within the quick menu is a three-line menu option that opens the main menu so you can access the usual options: load or save a flight, change your view, modify the flight, and so on.

Use the thumb stick Oculus or touchpad Vive to move around menus and submenus, then use the trigger on the controller to select an option.

Pop out windows such as ground services, ATC, the map, and more are available from the controller menu by selecting the icon that looks like two window boxes on the left side.

You can also bind a joystick button or key to this option. This cursor will function basically the same as a non-VR mouse.

VR is more demanding on your computer than simply using the desktop simulator. If you are not consistently running at least 45 fps in the base desktop sim, you will need to turn rendering settings down.

If that does not help, a full restart of the computer often seems to fix many problems with launching VR. That click is being stolen by SteamVR for internal functions.

People often call customer support asking about some of the more advanced things that pilots do in the real world—how to navigate, use an autopilot, or fly on instruments.

This chapter will cover these areas in a fair amount of detail, but we recommend that, if you are really serious about mastering these facets of aviation, you head down to a local general aviation airport and hire a CFI Certified Flight Instructor for an hour or two.

If you have a laptop, by all means bring it along and have the instructor detail these things in practice. There is much more to review here than this manual could ever cover, so a quick search for information on the Internet will also be of assistance.

You have no reference to the ground and are flying over St. Louis in the middle of an overcast layer.

As you might guess, this looks pretty much identical to the view you would have flying over Moscow on instruments. Louis and not over Moscow is to be able to navigate.

Figure 7. The VFR Sectional map is designed for use under visual flight rules. It only shows the information of interest to pilots flying above 18, feet and making use of vector airways that are much longer, based on larger VORs with longer ranges.

The maps provide a lot of information on the area where your aircraft is located, including topography and selectable NAVAIDs.

The thick blue and gray lines running across the maps are airways, which are basically like highways in the sky. These vector airways are given names for example, V and are used by air traffic controls to assign clearances.

Small airports are indicated by notched circles, while larger airports with are shown as full runway layouts.

Airports shown in blue on the VFR sectional map have control towers in the real world. To move your view around a map, you can click the map and drag.

You can also zoom in and out by using your mouse scroll wheel. Additionally, you can use the viewing control buttons located in the top left corner of the map window to alter your view.

Use the plus or minus icons to zoom in or out respectively. Tap the target icon to center the view on the aircraft. This will also lock the map view onto the aircraft so that as you fly, the map will scroll underneath it and the aircraft will stay in the center.

Drag anywhere on the map to break the lock. In this second case, if the plane is flying south, the top of the map will be south.

If the plane banks to the east, the map will automatically rotate and east will now be on top. Click on anything in the map to get more information on it.

For example, if you click on your aircraft, the Inspector box will pop up with its name, heading, altitude, speed, and climb angle, most of which you can also edit from within the window.

Clicking on an airport will allow you to pick a new runway or final approach, or view details such as weather conditions and communications frequencies.

In the right side of the map window you can change what is displayed on the map. You can check the boxes to toggle the flight path, a compass rose around your aircraft, or to disable downwind ILS beacons.

Non-directional beacons were invented in the late s and consisted of a ground-based transmitter that broadcast a homing signal.

A receiver in the aircraft could be tuned to one of about discrete frequencies in order to tune to a particular transmitter. Although nearly abandoned in the United States, NDBs are still used in many countries around the world.

It is for this reason that they are modeled in X-Plane. Very High Frequency Omni-Range navigation or VOR was introduced in the mid—s and represented a large improvement in navigation accuracy.

Instead of an NDB that a pilot could home in on, the VOR sends a series of discrete little carrier tones on a main frequency.

Each of these carriers is oriented along a different radial from the station, one of just like a compass rose.

You can imagine it like the wheel of a bike: the VOR transmitter is the hub of the wheel with spokes representing each radial.

Thus, when you are flying along and tune in the main VOR frequency, you then fine tune your navigation display to tell you which of the radials you are flying and also whether the transmitter station is in front of or behind you.

This error could only be due to two factors—either the pilot was not flying along the radial or the wind blew the airplane slightly off of course.

Clicking on one in the map will display its information and allow you to tune your Navigational radios with a click of a button.

Click on the map icon to open a window that will allow you to tune the frequency into your NAV 1 radio automatically. Keep in mind that you can also tune the navigation radio built into the GPS, but you may have to hit the flip-flop switch to bring the frequency you just tuned into the active window on top.

The vertical line in the center is the reference indicator, and moves to the left and right to indicate where the aircraft is in relation to a chosen radial.

Select a radial by turning the OBS knob which rotates the compass rose around the instrument; the chosen radial is indicated above the top yellow arrow.

Now you can determine where you are in relation to the VOR by finding what radial you are on, or you can enter a radial you want to be on in order to plot your desired course.

Keep in mind that all radials are measured as the heading when moving away from a VOR beacon. Determining what radial you are on is simple.

The number above the yellow arrow at the top of the CDI is your current radial position. To intercept a different radial, look at your map again to determine where you are in relation to the station.

If you are inbound to the station, pick the reciprocal on the opposite side of the station from your aircraft. If you are outbound, use the radial your aircraft is currently on.

Turn the OBS dial again to enter the desired radial at the top of the circle. Most likely the vertical line will be off to one side or the other.

This indicates how far you are from your desired radial. To the left and right of the center target the little white circle the instrument displays five dots or short lines on each side.

Each of these dots indicates that you are two degrees off of course. Thus, a full scale left deflection of the vertical reference indicates that the aircraft is 10 degrees right of the desired radial.

Just remember that as long as you are flying towards the VOR, the line on the CDI indicates the location of the desired course.

If the reference line is on your left that means that your target radial is on your left, and you should turn that direction.

Your aim is to get the vertical line in the center and to stay there, indicating you are flying the desired radial. You have no way of telling if you are 15 miles from the station or 45 miles away.

An ILS is therefore made up of two transmitters, a localizer and a glide slope—one for each component of the navigation. A localizer LOC transmitter provides lateral guidance to the centerline of a runway.

It works by sending out two signals on the same channel, one of which modulates at 90 Hz and the other of which modulates at Hz.

One of these signals is sent out slightly to the left of the runway, while the other sent out slightly to the right of it.

If an aircraft is picking up more of the tone modulated at Hz, it is off to the left. If it is picking up more of the tone modulated at 90 Hz, it is off to the right.

The course deviation indicator or CDI in the instrument panel then indicates this so that the pilot can correct it. When both tones are being received in equal amounts, the craft is lined up with the physical centerline of the runway.

The glide slope beacon functions similarly to the localizer, sending out two tones that have the same frequency, but different modulations.

The difference is that the glide slope tells the plane that it is either too high or too low for its distance from the runway.

The ILS will allow a pilot to fly on instruments only to a point that is a half mile from the end of the runway at feet depending on the category of the ILS above the ground.

If the runway cannot be clearly seen at that point the pilot is prevented from executing a normal landing.

The Global Positioning System was first created for the US military and introduced to the public in the early s. This system consists of a series of satellites orbiting the Earth which continuously send out signals telling their orbital location and the time the signal was sent.

A GPS receiver can tune in to the signals they send out and note the time it took for the signal to travel from the satellite to the receiver for several different satellites at once.

Since the speed at which the signals travel is known, it is a simple matter of arithmetic to determine how far from each satellite the receiver is.

Triangulation or, rather, quadrangulation is than used to determine exactly where the receiver is with respect to the surface of the Earth.

In an aircraft, this information is compared with the onboard database to determine how far it is to the next airport, navigational aid NAVAID , waypoint, or whatever.

The concept is simple, but the math is not. GPS systems have turned the world of aviation on its head, allowing everyday pilots to navigate around with levels of accuracy that were unimaginable 20 years ago.

While the intricate workings of the various GPS radios are complex, the basic principals are pretty consistent. On the Garmin , entry is performed using the control knob on the bottom right of the unit.

The databases in these radios are not limited simply to the identifiers of the airports you may wish to fly to.

To begin a discussion on instrument flight, we must first discuss why it is so difficult. Rather, the difficulty lies in believing what the instruments are saying.

Your body has developed a system of balance and equilibrium that has evolved in humans over millions of years, and forcing your brain to ignore these signals and to believe what the instruments are telling you is very difficult.

To put it bluntly, in a real aircraft, your life depends on ignoring your feelings and senses and flying based solely on the information in front of you.

The gyroscope was invented many decades before aircraft, but its tremendous implications for flying were not realized until the mid- to late—s.

The basic principal that they work on is that if you take a relatively heavy object and rotate it at a high rotational velocity it will hold its position in space.

You can then mount this stable, rigid gyroscope in an instrument that is fixed to your aircraft and measure the relative motion of the instrument case and thus the airplane about the fixed gyro.

There are three primary gyroscopic instruments in the panel. They are:. The AI indicates what attitude the aircraft is flying at—how far the nose is above or below the horizon, as well as how far the wings are banked and in which direction.

There are six primary instruments that have become standard in any instrument panel. The airspeed indicator shows the speed at which the aircraft is traveling through the air.

In its simplest form, it is nothing more than a spring which opposes the force of the air blowing in the front of a tube attached under the wing or to the nose of the aircraft.

The attitude indicator informs the pilot of his or her position in space relative to the horizon. This is accomplished by fixing the case of the instrument to the aircraft and measuring the displacement of the case with reference to a fixed gyroscope inside.

The altimeter looks somewhat like the face of a clock and serves to display altitude. This is measured by the expansion or contraction of a fixed amount of air acting on a set of springs.

As the airplane climbs or descends, the relative air pressure outside the aircraft changes and the altimeter reports the difference between the outside air pressure and a reference, contained in a set of airtight bellows.

The turn coordinator measures the rate of turn for the aircraft. The instrument is only accurate when the turn is coordinated-that is, when the airplane is not skidding or slipping through the turn.

In a car, this results in a turn radius that is larger than that commanded by the driver. It results from an aircraft that is banked too steeply for the rate of turn selected.

The directional gyro is a simple instrument that points north and thus allows the pilot to tell which way she or he is flying.

Typically, non-pressurized airplanes will climb comfortably at about fpm if the plane is capable and descend at about fpm. Pressurized airplanes can climb and descend much more rapidly and still maintain the cabin rate of change at about these levels, since the cabin altitude is not related to the ambient altitude unless the pressurization system fails.

Similar steps can be used for any airport in any application. To fly an instrument approach, we first need to know the local navigational aid NAVAID frequencies in order to tune our radios.

Now, Sea-Tac is a busy airport, so you may have to zoom in to find the ILS for the runway you are approaching.

When you find it, though, you can click on it to highlight in yellow the ILS path and to open a small window with details.

From this window you can tune your radios with a click of a button and place your aircraft up in the air at the perfect spot for the approach.

Recall from the discussion of ILSs previously in this chapter that an ILS combines the functionality of a localizer providing lateral guidance to the centerline of the runway with a glide slope transmitter providing vertical guidance down to the runway.

Having found the relevant ILS frequency, enter it into the Nav 1 radio remember you can tune your radios automatically using the buttons in the map window.

Click the GPS screen in the cockpit to bring up the close-up of the instrument if needed. However, in ILS navigation both the horizontal and vertical lines move to provide guidance.

The localizer is represented by a vertical line. When it is in the center of the CDI, it means that the aircraft is lined up almost perfectly with the physical centerline of the runway.

The glide slope indicator portion of the CDI is represented by a horizontal line. When this is in the center of the instrument, the aircraft is perfectly in line with the glide slope and is descending at an ideal rate.

Below the attitude indicator is the directional gyro. You can use this to line up your approach with a known heading e.

Additionally, the glide slope indicator will begin to move. This line functions like the vertical one: If its needles are above the center of the instrument then the craft needs to fly up to get back on track, and if they are below the center of the instrument, it needs to fly down to intercept the glide slope.

However, the glide slope is in most cases a downward slope at three degrees, so you should never need to climb to intercept it, just adjust the rate of descent.

The horizontal line is above us when we start the approach, since we started 10 nm out from the runway. Continue flying the same altitude, and the line will slowly come down to the center, and from there you should control the descent to keep it there.

The goal is to keep the vertical line centered to stay on the localizer, and the horizontal line centered to stay on the glide slope.

Follow the guidance of the localizer and glide slope until the craft reaches an altitude of about feet above the runway. At this point, if everything was done correctly, the runway will be right in front of the aircraft.

In the Cessna, this is about 65 knots. This instrument allows pilots to fly a GPS approach as well as direct-to navigation.

This can be moved around the cockpit as needed. Clicking the GPS display in the cockpit a second time will close the window.

The controls on left side adjust the VOR, localizer and communication frequencies, while the ones on the right control GPS functions.

When the bottom frequency is highlighted in a paler blue, you can use the inner and outer rotating knobs to change the frequency. Read messages, create or edit a flight plan, and activate procedures by pressing the buttons at the bottom.

In general, the large dial moves between lines or options, while the smaller one is used to edit a line.

The LCD will change to a data entry screen. From the main navigation screen, click the large knob twice to get to the group of menus for nearest airport, intersection, NDB, VOR, and airspace.

After creating a flight plan, you can save it to load later by pressing the Menu button while in the active flight plan screen.

You can also reverse the order of waypoints or delete the entire plan from this menu. To load a saved plan, use the small knob to go to the second screen of the Flight Plan category.

The autopilot works by implementing a number of different functions. These include, among other things, the ability to automatically hold a certain pitch, altitude, heading, or speed, or to fly to a commanded altitude.

Each of these is a mode that the aircraft can be put into simply by clicking that button on the panel with the mouse. Not all aircraft have autopilot, and some of the simpler craft, such as the Cessna , may have fewer modes than those listed below.

The actual use of these autopilot functions will be discussed in the following sections. The WLV button is the wing leveler.

This will simply hold the wings level while the pilot figures out what to do next. The HDG button controls the heading hold function.

This will simply follow the heading bug on the HSI or direction gyro. The LOC button controls the localizer flight function. The HOLD button controls the altitude hold function.

This will hold the current or pre-selected altitude by pitching the nose up or down. The SPD button controls the airspeed function.

This will hold the pre-selected airspeed by pitching the nose up or down, leaving the throttle alone. The FLCH button controls the flight-level change function.

This will hold the pre-selected airspeed by pitching the nose up or down, adding or taking away power automatically. This is commonly used to change altitude in airliners, as it allows the pilot add or take away power while the airplane pitches the nose to hold the most efficient airspeed.

If the pilot adds power, the plane climbs. If they take it away, the plane descends. SPD and FLCH are almost identical functions in X-Plane—they both pitch the nose up or down to maintain a desired aircraft speed, so adding or taking away power results in climbs and descents, respectively.

The difference is that if you have auto-throttle on the airplane, FLCH will automatically add or take away power for you to start the climb or descent, whereas SPD will not.

The PTCH button controls the pitch sync function. This is commonly used to just hold the nose somewhere until the pilot decides what to do next.

This will fly the glide slope portion of an ILS. The VNAV button controls the vertical navigation function. This will automatically load altitudes from the FMS Flight Management System into the autopilot for you in order to follow route altitudes.

The BC button controls the back course function. Every ILS on the planet has a little-known second localizer that goes in the opposite direction as the inbound localizer.

This is used for the missed approach, allowing you to continue flying along the extended centerline of the runway, even after passing over and beyond the runway.

To save money, some airports will not bother to install a new ILS at the airport to land on the same runway going the other direction, but instead let you fly this second localizer backwards to come into the runway from the opposite direction of the regular ILS!

This is called a back course ILS. Using the same ILS in both directions has its advantages e. Hit the BC autopilot button if you are doing this.

It causes the autopilot to realize that the needle deflection is backwards and still fly the approach. Note also that the glide slope is not available on the back course, so you have to use the localizer part of the procedure only.

Before using the autopilot, it needs to be turned on. If the flight director is OFF, nothing will happen when you try to use the autopilot.

If it is ON, then the autopilot will not physically move the airplane controls, but will rather move little target wings on your artificial horizon that you can try to mimic as you fly.

The Jets 1, 2 and 3 tabs of the Engine Specs dialog display power curves for N1 as function of N2, thrust with N1, and thrust with mach and altitude.

In these screens you can set different values in the boxes on the left side and see how it affects the power curves.

Change the boxes on the right sides to get the exact measurement at a specific data point. These curves are very carefully modeled after real engines.

Rocket engines, like jets, are quite simple to set up in Plane Maker. For a rocket engine, this center of thrust is usually the center of the exhaust nozzle.

Here, there are three parameter boxes for thrust. From left to right, these set the maximum thrust of the rocket engine, in pounds,.

In X-Plane, the engine can put out full thrust in all three conditions, though real rockets are not always able to do so. This is used only to calculate how large an exhaust flame to display in X-Plane.

Specific fuel consumption in rocket engines is much simpler than in combustion engines; this parameter applies at all altitudes, at all power settings.

Engines of the same type propeller-driving, jet, or rocket are assumed to have the same characteristics—that is, all propeller-driving engines on an aircraft will have the same maximum allowable horsepower, the same redline RPM, and so on.

This, of course, applies only to engines that turn propellers. Most aircraft designs will have one transmission per engine.

Thus, a single-engine aircraft will have a single transmission, a twin-engine aircraft will have two transmissions, and so on.

Exceptions are designs which use a common transmission to connect multiple engines to multiple propellers, as seen in the V—22 Osprey, as well as helicopter designs, where all rotors are geared together.

All aircraft lose some power in the transference of energy from the engine to the actual turning of the propeller; this is power lost to the transmission.

Thus, a value of 1. Airplanes typically have losses between 0. With multiple engines created in the Engines 2 tab, there will be one row of settings for each engine.

Note that the topmost engine here corresponds to the leftmost engine in the Engines 1 tab, and the topmost propeller here corresponds to the leftmost propeller in the Props 1 tab.

Thus, in a twin-engine plane, the port-side engine might feed transmission 1, and the port-side propeller would be fed by transmission 1. The starboard-side engine, then, would feed transmission 2, and the starboard-side propeller would be fed by transmission 2.

The electrical and hydraulic sub-systems of an aircraft are used to drive instruments, lighting, and flight controls.

The pressurization system keeps the air pressure in the cabin at a comfortable level. These systems are modeled in Plane Maker using the Systems dialog box, found in the Standard menu.

The electrical system is configured using the Systems dialog box. The Electrical 1 tab sets the sources of electrical power, as well as the number of buses and inverters, so it is a good place to start when setting up the system.

Note that the aircraft will have one battery for every battery button present on the 2-D instrument panel, and one generator for every generator button on the panel.

The battery will only be considered if more amperage is required by your electronics than is available from the generator, as might occur in a generator failure or when taxiing in some aircraft.

A good estimate for light aircraft is a 1, watt-hour battery. If the aircraft has an APU, check the options it provides, such as bleed air or generator.

If the aircraft also has an air-driven backup generator to power the electrical system, check the box on the right side of the Sources portion of the dialog box.

An aircraft will often have several different electrical distribution networks, called buses. These buses are often separated and powered by separate generators and batteries so that the failure of one bus will not cause electrical failure across the rest of the aircraft.

Inverters are most commonly used for backup power, turning DC power from the battery into AC power for most electronics. For instance, in Figure 4.

In addition to the subsystems, there may be a base load on each of the buses—that is, some number of amps drawn at all times, regardless of what other electronics are powered on.

The base load for each bus is set in the upper left of the Bus 1 tab. Note that generator loads will be affected by the bus that each system is attached to, and the amperage drawn from it.

If the bus powering a system fails in X-Plane—that is, if the battery and generator for the bus are off, the bus cross-tie is off, and there is no APU running for the bus—that system will fail.

X-Plane can model up to four hydraulic pumps: one powered by the electrical system, one powered by a ram air turbine, and two powered by the engine.

Check the boxes in the Hydraulic Sources portion of the General tab corresponding to the pumps your aircraft uses.

The units on the maximum pressure are not specified; the hydraulics modeling is not detailed enough for the units to matter, so they can be anything.

The only thing that matters here is the ratio between the different pumps, and it only matters then in the case of failure. To the right of the hydraulic sources are the systems that depend on the hydraulics.

If the hydraulic pumps fail, the systems represented by each checked box will also fail. Most of the systems here are self-explanatory. This is set as a ratio of their normal full operation.

The group of settings in the middle specifies how the landing gear fails in the event of a hydraulic failure.

Select the radio button appropriate for your aircraft here. These located at the bottom of the Hydraulic Systems box.

Standard atmosphere on Earth is Below the maximum allowable pressurization is the emergency pressurization altitude.

Finally, you can enter an amount for bottled oxygen available to be used by crew in cases of pressurization failure.

Later, when designing the instrument panel, you will add the specific instruments your aircraft uses. This includes performance ranges, which are set in terms of red-line, yellow, and green ranges.

These tabs are used to set the operational and limiting temperatures, pressures, voltages, etc. Note that this information is not used in the flight model; it controls only what the instruments display.

To configure the colors used in the instrument displays, open the Systems dialog box from the Standard menu and select the Arc Colors tab.

Here, you can set the decimal RGB values for each of the three standard ranges. In setting the angles, 0 degrees is the top of the instrument.

Angles can be positive or negative, and can even be greater than if you would like the dial to wrap around.

In the case of digital instruments, checking the box for a measurement allows you to set the offset, scale, and the number of digits used in displaying that measurement.

In addition to red, green, and yellow ranges, the instruments need standard operating markings. With the exception of the g limits, these will not be factored into the flight model; they may, however, be used in the airspeed indicator.

To set these, open the Viewpoint dialog box from the Standard menu. There, on the left side of the General tab, you can set the following:.

V mca , the minimum speed below which you can still steer the aircraft with one engine disabled and the other at full throttle. If you cannot find official g limit values, 4.

Note that, depending on your engine configuration, some of the values listed above may not be visible. Any of these markings can be left off the instruments by simply setting their values to zero.

For general settings that control autopilot behavior, select the Systems dialog from under the Standard menu. On the General 1 tab, start by choosing a preconfigured or custom autopilot.

Preconfiugred options include:. This hides other configuration options and configures the autopilot internally to behave like the Garmin GFC—, which is a high-end position-based digital autopilot.

STec 55 - High-end general aviation dual-axis rate-based digital autopilot. Most notably, this autopilot does not have buttons with toggle logic, so you cannot press the button of an active mode to go back to a default mode.

You always have to select a new mode to cancel an old mode. Used in the default analogue C KAP with alt - Hides other configuration options and configures the autopilot to behave like this single-axis general aviation rate-based autopilot.

This acts on the roll axis only, does not have an elevator or trim servo, and defaults to zero turn rate wings level for roll mode.

This autopilot supports GPSS through the heading mode. KAP without alt - dual-axis general aviation rate-based autopilot.

Adds vertical speed hold and altitude hold to the functions of the KAP— KAP with alt presel - Like the dual-axis KAP—, but with an altitude pre-selector that allows arming altitude capture.

Piper Autocontrol - Hides other configuration options and configures the autopilot to behave like this generic low-tech non-microprocessor autopilot.

Can be either rate-based or position-based. Has the usual dual-axis modes, but does not have any logic for automatic mode reversions.

Will not change modes on its own, does not have advanced logic like dual-mode intercepts or altitude capture.

For additional information on using the XP Custom is the backwards compatible option for all planes created prior to This is the most important setting.

It determines under which circumstances the autopilot will stay functional in abnormal situations. Next select the heading source.

This determines what provides heading information to the autopilot and the kind of performance to expect from that.

Then select the Nav course source. This is how the autopilot obtains the information on how to intercept and track a navigational source.

Below the radio buttons are four columns of check boxes. The first column boxes control how the autopilot interacts with the servos.

The boxes of the second column are options for how the pre-selector is automatically loaded. To further configure a custom autopilot in Plane-Maker, or fine-tune an existing one, first go to the Expert menu and click on Artificial Stability.

A number of controls will appear that specify the autopilot constants for your airplane. The first box adjusts how quickly the autopilot changes the throttle setting.

The last option controls the sensitivity of the autopilot in reacting to an error in speed. Higher numbers decrease the sensitivity, and the autopilot will wait longer before applying full throttle to correct a deviation.

The roll prediction control is found in the middle box of the Autopilot tab, at the top of the left column, highlighted in blue in the following image.

If the plane tends to wander slowly left and right, always behind its mark, or it overshoots and then wanders slowly off in the wrong direction, then it clearly is not anticipating enough.

In that case, an increase is required in the roll prediction to make the autopilot anticipate more. If, however, the airplane starts flopping back and forth hysterically every frame, the autopilot is clearly anticipating too much; a smaller roll prediction is needed.

This control lets the autopilot know how long it will take to see the results of the adjustments. When flying a real plane, a pilot decides on a roll angle to make a turn.

He or she then decides to deflect the ailerons a certain amount of degrees to achieve the desired bank angle.

This control specifies to the autopilot how many degrees off the aircraft must be from the desired roll angle before it puts in full aileron.

If this is set to a very small number, the autopilot will put in full aileron for even the tiniest of roll errors.

This will cause the plane to over-control and flutter madly left and right like an over-caffeinated pilot!

On the other hand, if this control is set to a very large number, then the autopilot will hardly put in any aileron input at all. In that case, the plane will always wander off course a bit, because it will never move quickly enough to get back on course.

What this control really determines is how aggressively the ailerons are applied. A good starting point for this control is 30 degrees.

This means that if the roll angle is off by 10 degrees, the plane will apply one- third aileron to correct when at low speed—not a bad idea.

Beneath this control is the roll rate, measured in degrees per second. This tells the autopilot how fast to roll the plane.

This should be based on what the aircraft is realistically capable of. The autopilot will overshoot turns if this is set too high, or fail to complete a turn in time if it is too low.

In the real plane, a pilot will trim out any loads with trim if it is available. The roll tune time determines how long the autopilot takes to run the trim.

If the autopilot waits too long to trim out the loads, it may be slow and late in getting to the correct angle. A good starting point for this control is 5 seconds.

This sets the number of degrees of heading change that the autopilot will pull for each degree of error on the localizer which is the same as saying for each dot of CDI deflection.

If the aircraft is off course by about one degree, and the autopilot corrects only one degree, the craft would be flying right towards the airport, never intercepting the localizer until it got to the transmitter on the ground.

Thus, a good starting point for this control is 10 degrees, forcing the plane to nail that HSI now. Next we will discuss correcting pitch; the discussion will be almost exactly the same as roll, really.

This control determines how far into the future the autopilot will look. If the plane is always wandering up and down when trying to hold a given vertical speed, always a few steps behind where it needs to be, then more anticipation is clearly called for—the pitch prediction control needs to be set to a larger number.

Conversely, if the plane is always resisting motion towards the desired pitch, then it is probably anticipating too much, and a smaller number is called for.

Once again, these numbers need to be tuned in pitch and roll modes, or maybe heading and vertical speed modes, to get them set perfectly, with nice, snappy, precise autopilot response, before the autopilot is tested on an ILS.

It determines how much error between desired and actual pitch is required for full elevator deflection.

If the plane takes too long getting the nose up to track a new vertical speed, then a smaller pitch error for full elevator value is needed.

This will cause the plane to be more aggressive with the elevator. Of course, if the plane starts flapping about madly, a larger value is needed, telling the plane to stop deflecting the elevator so much.

It sets the time required to trim, similar to the roll tune time control described above.

If this is set to too small a number, the plane will constantly be wandering up and down as it plays with the trim, as it will always be too quick to modify the trim.

It determines how many degrees the autopilot will pitch the craft up or down in order to correct for a one-knot difference between the actual speed and the one set in flight level change mode.

A good starting point is 0. A good pilot will anticipate where the glideslope will be in the near future as he or she controls the pitch.

If the pitch is not anticipated enough, the aircraft will be correcting up and down all the way down the glideslope. If the pitch is anticipated too much, the craft will never get to the glideslope, as it will always be shying away from it as soon as the needle starts to close in.

It tells the autopilot how much it should change the pitch for each degree of glideslope error. For example, if it is set to 5 degrees a reasonable value , the autopilot will pitch up 5 degrees for each degree it is below the glideslope.

The greater the number entered here, the more the command bars will move to meet the glideslope. To summarize, the autopilot settings are complicated and they interact.

Remember that there are two things happening with these controls: the amount the autopilot moves the command bars, and the amount it moves the controls to capture those command bars.

Therefore, if the command bars are not behaving as they should, one of the command bar variables needs to be set. You can specify whether the GPS auto-adjusts to desired track in the Instruments box found in the General 1 tab of the Systems dialog.

Choose whether your starter is electric or air-driven. You can also select up to four additional behaviors for the different engine types that will activate when the starter button is pressed in X-Plane.

Next, move to the Tanks tab. In this tab, there are nine fuel tanks able to be added. For instance, if an aircraft had two fuel tanks, one in each wing, each tank might hold 0.

This will determine which tanks are emptied first if more than one is selected. For instance, If tank 1 should empty a little bit before tank 2 and long before tank 3 when all 3 tanks are selected, you might set their fuel pump pressures as in the table below.

Note also that the fuel tank selectors in the instrument panel will select left and right tanks based on the physical locations you specify here.

Creating a basic 2-D instrument panel in Plane Maker is as easy as choosing a panel background image and dragging the instruments you want where you want them.

A Panel is a 2-d image with multiple instruments that is used to create a 2-d simulation of part of a real airplane cockpit.

A cockpit object is a 3-d object OBJ file that is used to create a 3-d simulation of an entire real airplane cockpit.

The panel texture is a dynamic texture a texture created and updated continuously by X-Plane that is created by drawing a panel and converting it to a texture for use in an object.

A 2-D view is a view that displays one panel, with the camera angle fixed. The user can scroll the panel up, down, left and right if it is larger than the screen, and can tilt the camera down to help with landings.

A 3-D view is a view that displays a cockpit object, where the user has complete freedom to move or rotate the camera in any way desired.

The 2-D panel is the panel that is used when looking forward in a 2-d view. It is also used to form the panel texture in most cases. The 3-D panel is a panel that is used to form the panel texture.

See below for more information. A panel background is a single large image that defines the size and appearance of the panel.

It does not change during flight. An instrument background is a single image that defines the non-moving part of an instrument. An instrument overlay is a small image that moves during flight to provide the moving parts of a panel.

Instruments can have up to four overlay layers. With the aircraft whose panel you want to design open, open the Standard menu and click Panel: 2-D.

The panel design dialog box will appear. This window is made up of a number of different sections. The buttons in the toolbar at the top of the screen labeled 1 in Figure 5.

Two groups of information panes lie on the left and right of the screen, respectively. On the left is the Instrument List, which is combined with the Preview, Description, and Properties panes, and on the right is the Hierarchy, combined with the Key Frames pane.

These left and right groups can be displayed or hidden by clicking the large Instrument List and Hierarchy buttons at the top of the screen, respectively.

Creation of an instrument panel then proceeds this way. For instance, in Figure 5. With an instrument selected, you can see what it will look like in the Preview tab labeled 3 in Figure 5.

Beneath this is the Description tab labeled 4 in Figure 5. Figure 5. Doing so will cause the instrument to also be listed in the hierarchy pane, labeled 6 in Figure 5.

With an instrument in the panel, click on it to select it; selecting an instrument in either the layout or the hierarchy pane will cause it to be selected in both.

When an instrument has been added to the panel layout, it will appear in the Hierarchy pane. You can select an instrument from the layout pane by clicking its name here.

Additionally, you can set its status to visible or invisible by clicking the eye icon to the left of it, and you can set it to locked or unlocked that is, unmovable or movable by clicking the padlock icon.

When an instrument is selected in the layout and hierarchy panes, the Properties tab labeled 7 in Figure 5. The comment property is simply for use in designing and will have no effect in X-Plane.

To select multiple instruments in either the hierarchy pane or the layout pane, hold down the Shift key and click the desired instrument.

To group instruments together in the hierarchy pane, select them and press the G key. With a group created, you can also click and drag other instruments into the group in the hierarchy pane.

With an instrument selected, you can drag it around to reposition it, or use the arrow keys to move it by very small amounts. Click and drag anywhere in the layout pane to form a box that selects multiple instruments.

To delete an instrument, select it and hit the Backspace key. If two instruments are placed on top of one another in the layout pane, the instrument closest to the bottom of the list in the hierarchy pane will be displayed on top of the instruments higher up the list.

Finally, in the very bottom of the window is the status bar labeled 8 in Figure 5. Before beginning the layout, you may want to create the background image that your panel will use.

Plane Maker will supply a default panel image based on your cockpit type setting specified at the top of the Viewpoint dialog box e.

Note that 4k panels may heavily impact performance; if so, go back to the earlier 2k size maximums x pixels. Panel backgrounds in Plane Maker can follow one of two naming conventions.

As of version 9, Plane Maker will still work with a panel named this way. With your panel image has been saved to the correct folder, it should appear the next time you open the Panel dialog in Plane Maker.

With the panel loaded, you can begin dragging and dropping instruments from the list into your cockpit. Generic instruments are designed to give you more flexibility in creating 2-d panels.

They are instruments on the 2-d panel that are configured based on custom parameters, artwork and datarefs. The purpose of generic instruments is customization, not easy creation; if you do not want to make your own artwork or animations, you should use the hundreds of pre-made instruments.

All of the properties available in pre-made instruments are customizable in generic ones, as well as many others.

Remember, hovering the mouse over any field will show a description of what it does. All generic instruments reference a PNG image file.

While there are default image files that will be used if the PNG file is blank, you should not use the default images. If you are going to use generic instruments, always provide your own artwork!

The generic instruments are provided only to be place-holders so that you can see the new instrument in the editor in Plane-Maker before you pick your own instruments.

These defaults may change in the future, breaking your panel. Use your own images, which will not change. You can build sub-folders within the generic folder.

The layering conventions —1, —2, etc. Changing the PNG file will change the real-time preview. All generic instruments are driven by a main dataref, which defines where the input values come from that move the instrument.

There is one exception: the trigger generic instrument uses a command rather than a dataref. In all cases, the instrument has some mechanism to scale the value of the dataref for display.

This is how, for example, you pick which engine an N1 instrument listens to. The N1 dataref is an array, with one item in the array for each element.

You do not type [0] into the dataref name in PlaneMaker. Generic instruments can have one of seven lighting modes, which affect how instrument overlays are drawn.

The background is simply burned in. Mechanical: the instrument is lit by the flood and spot lights. The instrument is always drawn albeit very dark if it is night and there is no power.

Glass: the instrument is lit by the appropriate instrument-lighting knob. The instrument disappears if there is no power.

Glass Translucent : same as glass, but when the instrument is dimmed, it fades to transparency, not to black. You can use a knob of —1 to have a lit instrument that is always on, for example.

This defines what power source the instrument draws from. A power failure will cut off instrument lighting, but will not necessarily fail the instrument itself.

For example, a vacuum-driven dataref should not be affected by an electrical failure. For each bus defined in the airplane, a check-box lets you attach power to the instrument; the instrument will power if any selected bus is powered.

The choices are:. The distortion applied to the instrument will be perspective-correct, and is meant to align moving parts on overhead panels.

Skewing does not affect burned-in backgrounds or hot-spots. Skewing is not recommended for instruments that can be dragged.

You specify a dataref and a value - if any of the rules is utilized in the editor but the rule is not true e.

A general note on proportions: in many cases, the scaling of the instruments work by proportions, e.

In a few cases, where a straight numeric result must be computed, an offset and multiplier are provided for the dataref.

The ratio is multiplied by the dataref before the offset is added. Basically if the conditions are met, the upper image in the png file is used, otherwise the lower ones are used.

Handles are used for draggable controls like engines. Key frames map from the input dataref to vertical pixel offsets from the center of the instrument.

Click radius defines how wide the hot spot for clicking is. This lets you make a handle that tends to stay in certain positions, like a flap handle on airliners.

The key frame table converts from the dataref to the numbers displayed. Digits and Decimals controls the formatting of numeric input.

You can also specify the number of rows in the texture. The default of 0 will use the old six-row layout.

The needle provides a steam-gauge-style instrument and is also capable of creating heading bugs. The key frame table maps from the input value to degrees.

Offset moves the needle away from the center by a certain number of pixels. This can be used to place a heading bug at the rim of the instrument or to position the needle on only one side of the instrument without using transparency.

Use this for mechanical heading bugs. The hot spot is centered around the needle, with the offset taken into account. The key frame table maps from dataref inputs to degrees.

The lowest key frame defines the start point of the pie. Note that the properties for turning yellow and red are defined in dataref units, not degrees.

So for example, for N1 you might do this:. A pointer moves its overlay image either left-right or up-down. The key frame table maps from the dataref to an offset in pixels from the center of the instrument.

If the orientation is vertical, the pointer moves up-down with the dataref, otherwise it moves left-right. The offset parameter is a fixed offset in the direction that is perpendicular to the way the pointer moves.

The radio frequency rheostat increments or decrements a radio frequency dataref. The radio type defines the type of frequency that will be controlled and the editing mode.

The rheostat will set the correct values in hz for the type of radio E. Click radius defines the hot-spot size.

The hot spot can be offset horizontally or vertically. When you pick Com Radio or Nav Radio, the rheostat automatically has an inner and outer ring.

When you pick ADF 3-Ring the rheostat automatically has 3 rings. The rheostat turns a dataref up and down, and optionally shows a rotating overlay.

The key frame table maps from the dataref to degrees to rotate the overlay. Click step defines how much the rheostat changes when the mouse is clicked once.

This is in the output units, not dataref units. Hold step defines how much the rheostat changes when the mouse is held down for one second.

A note on units: if you do not use an overlay, you can set the key frame table to map linearly e. In this case the click step and hold step would be in dataref units.

The one-way rheostat is like the normal rheostat except that the control can only be incremented. The one-way rheostat cannot have an overlay.

The digits parameter determines how many digits the rolling tape is split into. A rotary knob increases or decreases an integral dataref from 0 through a number of sections.

The key frame table maps from the dataref to the animation phase you want to show. Phases larger than the number of digits wrap around to the beginning; phases smaller than zero cause the rotary knob to disappear.

All clicks work in one output unit of the key frame table. Positions defines the number of drawing phases in the rotary. Note that for rotaries that do not wrap, the clamped values are based on the key frame table, not the digits.

Each click change the value by one with clamping. Momentary: clicking down sets the maximum key frame value, releasing sets the minimum key frame value.

Rheostat: holding down the mouse moves the rotary continuously like a rheostat. When this is selected, you must pick click and hold increment values.

Radio Button: holding down the mouse sets the highest key frame value, releasing does nothing. This is useful for creating a series of rotaries where a click to each one sets a dataref to a certain absolute value.

The rotary is the only generic instrument that reads and writes its dataref and can handle a key frame table with gaps. The tape display shows a linear tape graphic - the key frame table maps from the dataref to a pixel offset from the instrument center.

The tape starts at the position specified by the lowest key frame. The key frame table is ignored. This only works for byte-array type datarefs!

Use the LED instrument for numeric datarefs. The X and Y offsets are pixel offsets to position text drawing relative to the instrument.

The trigger instrument makes a clickable region that invokes a command. Instead of a dataref, a sim command is specified.

The generic trigger has a two-state bitmap, toggling between the two images as it is pressed. Put the two position images of the switch in one.

Call the file something like switch—1. The dataref for a slider can be used to animate an object or a generic instrument or anything else, for that matter.

Sliders are an advanced feature of aircraft design and were designed with programmers in mind. Thus, the landing gear switch in the instrument panel is either all the way up or all the way down.

This is where sliders come in. Essentially, the sliders act as a time-delay mechanism, running a sequence of ratios over a set amount of time when a source switch is set.

This lets you create animation sequences where a user sees the entire sequence. For a slider example, consider a staircase for a regional jet which needed to deploy over the course of 10 seconds.

To make this happen in X-Plane, we would to do the following:. Attach a 3-D staircase to the aircraft as a misc. It would animate from 0 to 1.

If you have more than one slider in your instrument panel, you can figure out which number each one is assigned by opening the panel design dialog and pressing the Alt key Option in Mac OS X.

It is also possible to create an animation sequence for parts of the aircraft which you do not want tied to an actual switch in the instrument panel.

For instance, you might want to animate the landing light housing unfolding from the wing when the lights are turned on.

Then, when the landing lights are turned on, the slider will be triggered and the landing lights will work as they should. Click the box next below the dataref checkbox and a dialog box will appear that allows you to choose which dataref you will link to.

In a misc. Recalling that two vectors are perpendicular if and only if their dot product is zero, it follows that the desired plane can be described as the set of all points r such that.

The dot here means a dot scalar product. Expanded this becomes. Conversely, it is easily shown that if a , b , c and d are constants and a , b , and c are not all zero, then the graph of the equation.

The vectors v and w can be visualized as vectors starting at r 0 and pointing in different directions along the plane.

The vectors v and w can be perpendicular , but cannot be parallel. The plane passing through p 1 , p 2 , and p 3 can be described as the set of all points x,y,z that satisfy the following determinant equations:.

This system can be solved using Cramer's rule and basic matrix manipulations. If D is non-zero so for planes not through the origin the values for a , b and c can be calculated as follows:.

These equations are parametric in d. Setting d equal to any non-zero number and substituting it into these equations will yield one solution set.

This plane can also be described by the " point and a normal vector " prescription above. A suitable normal vector is given by the cross product.

Another vector form for the equation of a plane, known as the Hesse normal form relies on the parameter D. This form is: [5].

The general formula for higher dimensions can be quickly arrived at using vector notation. The remainder of the expression is arrived at by finding an arbitrary point on the line.

We wish to find a point which is on both planes i. If that is not the case, then a more complex procedure must be used. In addition to its familiar geometric structure, with isomorphisms that are isometries with respect to the usual inner product, the plane may be viewed at various other levels of abstraction.

Each level of abstraction corresponds to a specific category. At one extreme, all geometrical and metric concepts may be dropped to leave the topological plane, which may be thought of as an idealized homotopically trivial infinite rubber sheet, which retains a notion of proximity, but has no distances.

The topological plane has a concept of a linear path, but no concept of a straight line. The topological plane, or its equivalent the open disc, is the basic topological neighborhood used to construct surfaces or 2-manifolds classified in low-dimensional topology.

Isomorphisms of the topological plane are all continuous bijections. The topological plane is the natural context for the branch of graph theory that deals with planar graphs , and results such as the four color theorem.

Falzhobel masculine Maskulinum m. The seminar is source geometric networks and related areas. Entweder verwenden Sie zwei moderatorenteam ntv Hindernisebenen, um eine Bewegung in der dritten Dimension zu vermeiden. Inhalt möglicherweise unpassend Entsperren. Mit source Geschwindigkeit kann das Auge die Bewegung nicht mehr identifizieren, Nachbildwirkungen link die Wahrnehmung der einzelnen Bilder.

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